Disparities in female earnings in Canada: Evidence of gaps by origin country

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University of New Brunswick


This study examines earnings of female immigrants from different world regions and the Canada-born population. Using annual data from the Longitudinal Immigration Database, the Education and Labour Market Longitudinal Platform, and the Census, we analyze earnings of immigrant cohorts and Canada-born individuals from 2004 to 2019. Specifically, the investigation aims to identify and quantify earnings disparities among female migrants in Canada, determine if there are significant differences in earnings based on place of birth, explore potential reasons for disparities, and assess regional differentiation in earnings. By employing the Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition framework to examine the extent of explained and unexplained contributions to earnings differences, we find evidence of migrant groups with consistently higher unexplained differences in earnings. Our study aims to identify disparities among different female groups and promote long-term economic integration in the labour market. In this regard, we find female migrants’ place of birth may be associated with higher (lower) barriers to labour market integration.