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Essential requirements for the governance and management of data trusts, data repositories, and other data collaborations
(Swansea University, 2023-09-20) Paprica, P. Alison; Crichlow, Monique; Curtis Maillet, Donna; Kesselring, Sarah; Pow, Conrad; Scarnecchia, Thomas P.; Schull, Michael J.; Cartagena, Rosario G.; Cumyn, Annabelle; Dostmohammad, Salman; Elliston, Keith O.; Griever, Michelle; Hawn Nelson, Amy; Hill, Sean L.; Isaranuwatcha, Wanrudee; Loukipoudis, Evgueni; McDonald, James Ted; McLaughlin, John R.; Rabinowitz, Alan; Razak, Fahad; Verhulst, Stefaan G.; Verma, Amol A.; Victor, J. Charles; Young, Andrew; Yu, Joanna; McGrail, Kimberlyn
Introduction Around the world, many organisations are working on ways to increase the use, sharing, and reuse of person-level data for research, evaluation, planning, and innovation while ensuring that data are secure and privacy is protected. As a contribution to broader efforts to improve data governance and management, in 2020 members of our team published 12 minimum specification essential requirements (min specs) to provide practical guidance for organisations establishing or operating data trusts and other forms of data infrastructure. Approach and Aims We convened an international team, consisting mostly of participants from Canada and the United States of America, to test and refine the original 12 min specs. Twenty-three (23) data-focused organisations and initiatives recorded the various ways they address the min specs. Sub-teams analysed the results, used the findings to make improvements to the min specs, and identified materials to support organisations/initiatives in addressing the min specs. Results Analyses and discussion led to an updated set of 15 min specs covering five categories: one min spec for Legal, five for Governance, four for Management, two for Data Users, and three for Stakeholder & Public Engagement. Multiple changes were made to make the min specs language more technically complete and precise. The updated set of 15 min specs has been integrated into a Canadian national standard that, to our knowledge, is the first to include requirements for public engagement and Indigenous Data Sovereignty. Conclusions The testing and refinement of the min specs led to significant additions and improvements. The min specs helped the 23 organisations/initiatives involved in this project communicate and compare how they achieve responsible and trustworthy data governance and management. By extension, the min specs, and the Canadian national standard based on them, are likely to be useful for other data-focused organisations and initiatives.
Double Disparity of Sexual Minority Status and Rurality in Cardiometabolic Hospitalization Risk: A Secondary Analysis Using Linked Population-Based Data
(MDPI, 2023-10-30) Gupta, Neeru; Cookson, Samuel R.
Studies have shown separately that sexual minority populations generally experience poorer chronic health outcomes compared with those who identify as heterosexual, as do rural populations compared with urban dwellers. This Canadian national observational study explored healthcare patterns at the little-understood intersections of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity with residence in rural and remote communities, beyond chronic disease status. The secondary analysis applied logistic regressions on multiple linked datasets from representative health surveys, administrative hospital records, and a geocoded index of community remoteness to examine differences in the risk of potentially avoidable cardiometabolic-related hospitalization among adults of working age. Among those with an underlying cardiometabolic condition and residing in more rural and remote communities, a significantly higher hospitalization risk was found for LGB-identified persons compared with their heterosexual peers (odds ratio: 4.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–11.7), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, and primary healthcare access. In models stratified by sex, the association remained significant among gay and bisexual men (5.6; CI: 1.3–24.4) but not among lesbian and bisexual women (3.5; CI: 0.9–13.6). More research is needed leveraging linkable datasets to better understand the complex and multiplicative influences of sexual minority status and rurality on cardiometabolic health to inform equity-enhancing preventive healthcare interventions.
Comparison of socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 testing and positivity in Canada: A multi-provincial analysis
(PLOS, 2023-08-23) Antonova, Lilia; Somayaji, Chandy; Cameron, Jillian; Sirski, Monica; Sundaram, Maria E.; McDonald, James Ted; Mishra, Sharmistha; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Katz, Alan; Baral, Stefan; Caulley, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew; Corsten, Martin; Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been more pronounced for socially disadvantaged populations. We sought to determine how access to SARS-CoV-2 testing and the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 were associated with demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and social determinants of health (SDH) in three Canadian provinces.
A practical and scalable hybrid quantum-based/quantum-safe group key establishment
(University of New Brunswick, 2023-07) Aldarwbi, Mohammed Y.; Ghorbani, Ali A.; Lashkari, Arash H.
This Ph.D. thesis investigates key establishment protocols, focusing on two-member and group key establishment protocols, with subcategories including classical, quantum-safe, and quantum-based solutions. I have identified research gaps such as the lack of quantum resistance in classical solutions, the inefficiency of quantum-safe solutions, and the impracticality of group-based quantum key distribution. To address these gaps, I have proposed several novel protocols and analyses. Our first contribution is a novel quantum-safe key management scheme called KeyShield. KeyShield is a scalable and quantum-safe system that offers a high level of security. KeyShield achieves re-keying using a single broadcast message in an open channel, rather than establishing pairwise secure channels. I have also proposed another version of KeyShield, called KeyShield2, which is obtained by applying a set of countermeasures to the original KeyShield protocol after conducting cryptanalysis and identifying its vulnerabilities. Furthermore, I have introduced two receiver-device-independent quantum key distribution protocols, QKeyShield and DGL22, based on entanglement-swapping and quantum teleportation, respectively. Both protocols minimize the attack surface, increase the key rate, and provide additional security enhancements. Security proofs and analyses demonstrate their effectiveness in establishing a secret key between Alice and Bob. I found that group-based quantum key distribution protocols are not effective or practical due to several limitations. I have conducted a thorough literature review and proved the impracticality of these protocols. I have proposed a model that can determine the maximum number of members for which group-based protocols are useful. Finally, I have proposed a scalable and practical hybrid group key establishment scheme. This protocol combines the power of the two-member quantum-based protocol, DGL22, to establish symmetric data encryption keys. The symmetric keys are then used to distribute the quantum-safe (KeyShield2) keying materials. The quantum-safe protocol, KeyShield2, is used to distribute a secure lock that can be opened by legitimate members using the keying materials to extract the traffic encryption key, T EK. This hybrid protocol enables a smooth transition between quantum-safe and quantum-based solutions, addressing distance limitations and pairwise channel requirements. It also allows for forward and backward compatibility.
Rapport récapitulatif: Caractérisation de la population francophone de la région du Grand Saint John (2015- 2020)
(l’Institut de recherche, de données et de formation du Nouveau-Brunswick, 2023-02) McDonald, Ted; Balzer, Andy; Cameron, Jillian; Mokhtar, Rawia
Le bilinguisme rend la province du Nouveau-Brunswick (N.-B.) unique au sein du Canada, de par sa forte diversité linguistique et son incroyable richesse culturelle. Cependant, comme le Nouveau-Brunswick est la seule province officiellement bilingue du Canada, certains segments de sa population sont confrontés à des obstacles linguistiques. Par exemple, il n’y a que peu d’information sur la taille de la communauté francophone dont les membres préféreraient un service en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone. Sans cette information, il est, toutefois, impossible de représenter précisément la demande potentielle de services sociaux et de soins de santé en français et de trouver le moyen de répondre à cette demande le plus efficacement possible. Dans ce rapport, nous tentons de remédier aux obstacles linguistiques, particulièrement dans la région du Grand Saint John1 en élaborant un profil de la population francophone de cette région. Pour combler cette lacune au niveau des connaissances et éclairer les discussions sur les obstacles linguistiques au N.-B., les auteurs de ce rapport exposent une analyse de la mesure dans laquelle les services de santé, entre autres services d’aide, peuvent être offerts en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone de la province. Parmi les aspects visés, mentionnons l’état de santé des résidents, l’usage des services de santé, la réception des services sociaux, la composition des ménages et le profil socio-économique du quartier. Nous examinons comment ces aspects ont changé au fil du temps et nous les comparons à celles des Néo-Brunswickois francophones et anglophones qui vivent dans une communauté urbaine majoritairement francophone et des résidents anglophones qui vivent dans la RGSJ, à Moncton et dans le reste du N.-B.2 Étant donné qu’à ce jour, la seule information sur la préférence linguistique que l’on trouve dans les données administratives du N.-B. est tirée des dossiers du système de l’assurance-maladie de la province, il y a des raisons de croire que l’on sous-estime peut-être la préférence linguistique réelle concernant les services de santé. C’est pourquoi nous envisageons des ajustements en fonction des résultats sur les connaissances linguistiques régionales indiqués dans le recensement canadien de 2016.