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How do authentic, empowering leaders influence new graduate nurses’ burnout development, job satisfaction, and quality of care? Examining the role of short-staffing and work-life interference
(Wiley, 2017) Boamah, Sheila A.; Read, Emily A.; Laschinger, Heather K. Spence
Aim: To test a hypothesized model linking new graduate nurses’ perceptions of their manager’s authentic leadership behaviours to structural empowerment, short-staffing, and work-life interference, and subsequent burnout, job satisfaction, and patient care quality. Background: Authentic leadership and structural empowerment have been shown to reduce early career burnout among nurses. Short-staffing and work-life interference are also linked to burnout and may help explain the impact of positive, empowering leadership on burnout, which in turn influences job satisfaction and patient care quality. Design: A time-lagged study of Canadian new graduate nurses was conducted. Methods: At Time 1, surveys were sent to 3,743 nurses (November 2012 to March 2013) and 1,020 were returned (27.3% response rate). At Time 2 (May to July 2014), 406 nurses who responded at Time 1 completed surveys (39.8% response rate). Descriptive analysis was conducted in SPSS. Structural equation modeling in Mplus was used to test the hypothesized model. Results: The hypothesized model was supported. Authentic leadership had a significant positive effect on structural empowerment, which in turn, decreased both short-staffing and work-life interference. Short-staffing and work-life imbalance subsequently resulted in nurse burnout, lower job satisfaction, and lower patient care quality one year later. Conclusion: The findings suggest that short-staffing and work-life interference are important factors influencing new graduate nurse burnout. Developing nurse managers’ authentic leadership behaviours and working with them to create and sustain empowering work environments may help reduce burnout, increase nurse job satisfaction and improve patient care quality.
The effects of authentic leadership and occupational coping self-efficacy on new graduate nurses’ burnout and mental health: A cross-sectional study
(Elsevier, 2015) Laschinger, Heather K. Spence; Borgogni, Laura; Consiglio, Chiara; Read, Emily
Background – New nurse burnout has personal and organizational costs. The combined effect of authentic leadership, person-job fit within areas of worklife, and occupational coping self-efficacy on new nurses’ burnout and emotional wellbeing has not been investigated. Objectives - This study tested a model linking authentic leadership, areas of worklife, occupational coping self-efficacy, burnout, and mental health among new graduate nurses. We also tested the validity of the concept of interpersonal strain at work as a facet of burnout. Design – A cross-sectional national survey of Canadian new graduate nurses was conducted. Participants – Registered nurses working in direct patient care in acute care settings with less than 3 years of experience were selected from provincial registry databases of 10 Canadian provinces. A total of 1009 of 3743 surveyed new graduate nurses were included in the final sample (useable response rate 27%). Methods - Participants received a mail survey package that included a letter of information, study questionnaire, and a $2 coffee voucher. To optimize response rates non-responders received a reminder letter four weeks after the initial mailing, followed by a second survey package four weeks after that. Ethics approval was obtained from the university ethics board prior to starting the study. Descriptive statistics and scale reliabilities were analyzed. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to test the fit between the data and the hypothesized model and to assess the factor structure of the expanded burnout measure. Results - The hypothesized model was an acceptable fit for the data (χ2 (164) = 1221.38; χ2 ratio =7.447; CFI =.921; IFI =.921; RMSEA =.08). All hypothesized paths were significant. Authentic leadership had a positive effect on areas of worklife, which in turn had a positive effect on occupational coping self-efficacy, resulting in lower burnout, which was associated with poor mental health. Conclusions - Authentic leaders may play an important role in creating positive working conditions and strengthening new nurses’ confidence that help them cope with job demands, thereby protecting them from developing burnout and poor mental health. Leadership training to develop supervisors’ authentic leadership skills may promote the development of person-job fit, thereby increasing occupational self-efficacy and new nurses’ wellbeing. Keywords: authentic leadership, areas of worklife, new graduate nurses, occupational coping self-efficacy, burnout, mental health
The influence of authentic leadership and empowerment on nurses’ relational social capital, mental health, and job satisfaction over the first year of practice
(Wiley, 2015) Read, Emily A.; Laschinger, Heather K.S.
Aims: To examine a theoretical model testing the effects of authentic leadership, structural empowerment, and relational social capital on the mental health and job satisfaction of new graduate nurses over the first year of practice. Background: Relational social capital is an important interpersonal organizational resource that may foster new graduate nurses’ workplace wellbeing and promote retention. Evidence shows that authentic leadership and structural empowerment are key aspects of the work environment that support new graduate nurses, however the mediating role of relational social capital has yet to be explored. Design: A longitudinal survey design was used to test the hypothesized model. Methods: One hundred ninety-one new graduate nurses in Ontario with <2 years of experience completed mail surveys in Jan-March 2010 and 1 year later in 2011. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical model. Results: Participants were mostly female, working full-time in medicine/surgery or critical care. All measures demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity. Path analysis results supported our hypothesized model; structural empowerment mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and nurses’ relational social capital, which in turn had a negative effect on mental health symptoms and a positive effect on job satisfaction. All indirect paths in the model were significant. Conclusion: By creating structurally empowering work environments, authentic leaders foster relational social capital among new graduate nurses leading to positive health and retention outcomes
Workplace social capital in nursing: an evolutionary concept analysis
(Wiley, 2014) Read, Emily A.
Aim: To report an analysis of the concept of nurses’ workplace social capital. Background: Workplace social capital is an emerging concept in nursing with potential to illuminate the value of social relationships at work. A common definition is needed. Design: Concept analysis Data sources: The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, PsychINFO, and ProQuest Nursing. Review methods: Databases were systematically searched using the keywords: workplace social capital, employee social capital, work environment, social capital, and nursing published between January 1937 and November 2012 in English that described or studied social capital of nurses at work were included. A total of 668 resources were found. After removing 241 duplicates, literature was screened in two phases: 1) titles and abstracts were reviewed (n = 427), and 2) remaining data sources were retrieved and read (n = 70). Eight sources were included in the final analysis. Results: Attributes of nurses’ workplace social capital included networks of social relationships at work, shared assets, and shared ways of knowing and being. Antecedents were communication, trust, and positive leadership practices. Nurses’ workplace social capital was associated with positive consequences for nurses, their patients, and healthcare organizations. Conclusion: Nurses’ workplace social capital is defined as nurses’ shared assets and ways of being and knowing that are evident in and available through nurses’ networks of social relationships at work. Future studies should examine and test relationships between antecedents and consequences of nurses’ workplace social capital in order to better understand this important aspect of healthy professional practice environments.
Correlates of new graduate nurses’ experiences of workplace mistreatment
(Lippincott, 2013) Read, Emily; Laschinger, Heather K.
Objective: This study explores antecedents and consequences of new graduate nurses’ experiences of workplace mistreatment. Background: New graduate nurses’ experiences of workplace mistreatment negatively influence organizational and personal health outcomes. Three types of workplace mistreatment are bullying, co-worker incivility, and supervisor incivility. It is unclear whether the relationships between precipitating factors and outcomes are similar when new graduate nurses experience these different types of workplace mistreatment. Methods: We surveyed 342 new graduate nurses in Ontario to examine the exploratory model related to each negative workplace behavior experience. Results: Community had a stronger correlation to co-worker incivility (-.58) than supervisor incivility (-.32) and bullying (-.44). Structural empowerment was more related to bullying (-.34) and co-worker incivility (-.30) than supervisor incivility (-.22). Bullying had stronger correlations to all outcome variables. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal health outcomes were all negatively related to workplace mistreatment. Conclusions: New graduate nurses’ experiences of three types of workplace mistreatment have similar relationships to precipitating factors and outcomes with stronger correlations to bullying than incivility.