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UNB Scholar is an institutional repository initiative of UNB Libraries intended to collect, preserve, showcase, and promote the open access scholarly output of the UNB community. Use UNB Scholar to explore specific collections, or search all content in the repository. Material submitted to the repository will also be freely discoverable online through Google and other major search engines.

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Systemic Barriers to French Immersion in New Brunswick
(2022-06-28) Gerbrandt, Julianne
Abstract: French Immersion is a popular program in New Brunswick; however, a growing body of research warns that it might contribute to inequities in public education. My experiences as an elementary French immersion teacher have prompted me to question the barriers to accessing and succeeding in the second language program. I begin by describing the history of FI in Canadian schools before identifying the systemic barriers that limit participation in the program. I will then explain how Bourdieu and Passeron’s theory of social reproduction might help us to recognize the underlying social forces that predetermine one’s likelihood of access and success in the popular program. Meaningful change requires a paradigm shift in thinking about what constitutes a good candidate for FI. Keywords: French Immersion, Bourdieu, Equity
Antimycobacterial 1,4-napthoquinone natural products from Moneses uniflora
(Elsevier, 2018-10) Li, Haoxin; Bos, Allyson; Jean, Stéphanie; Webster, Duncan; Robichaud, Gilles A.; Johnson, John A.; Gray, Christopher A.
A new 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, 5,8-dihydro-3-hydroxychimaphilin (4) and five known compounds (1, 2 and 5–7) were isolated from an extract of the Canadian medicinal plant Moneses uniflora that significantly inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. The structure of 4 was established through analysis of NMR and MS data and the absolute configuration of the glycone of 5 was determined by chemical transformation and comparison with standards prepared from D- and L-glucose. All compounds isolated were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) and the mammalian HEK 293 cell line and, with the exception of compounds 5 and 7, exhibited marked selectivity in their bioactivity: Compound 1 exhibited potent antimycobacterial activity (IC50 of 5.4 μM) and moderate cytotoxicity (IC50 of 30 μM); compounds 2, 4 and 6 showed moderate antimycobacterial activity (IC50 values from 28 – 47 μM) without affecting the viability of mammalian cells; compound 5 displayed moderate activity in both assays (IC50 values of 44 and 55 μM respectively); and compound 7 was not active in either assay. These data suggest that the Moneses napthaquinone derivatives elicit biological responses in mycobacterial and mammalian cells through disparate modes of action that warrant further investigation
New Brunswick’s mental health action plan: A quantitative exploration of program efficacy in children and youth using the Canadian Community Health Survey
(Public Library of Science, 2024-06-07) Yang, Yuzhi (Stanford); Law, Moira; Vaghri, Ziba
In 2011, the New Brunswick government released the New Brunswick Mental Health Action Plan 2011–2018 (Action Plan). Following the release of the Action Plan in 2011, two progress reports were released in 2013 and 2015, highlighting the implementation status of the Action Plan. While vague in their language, these reports indicated considerable progress in implementing the Action Plan, as various initiatives were undertaken to raise awareness and provide additional resources to facilitate early prevention and intervention in children and youth. However, whether these initiatives have yielded measurable improvements in population-level mental health outcomes in children and youth remains unclear. The current study explored the impact of the Action Plan by visualizing the trend in psychosocial outcomes and service utilization of vulnerable populations in New Brunswick before and after the implementation of the Action Plan using multiple datasets from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Survey-weighted ordinary least square regression analyses were performed to investigate measurable improvements in available mental health outcomes. The result revealed a declining trend in the mental wellness of vulnerable youth despite them consistently reporting higher frequencies of mental health service use. This study highlights the need for a concerted effort in providing effective mental health services to New Brunswick youth and, more broadly, Canadian youth, as well as ensuring rigorous routine outcome monitoring and evaluation plans are consistently implemented for future mental health strategies at the time of their initiation.
A descriptive study found low prevalence of presumed predatory publications in a subset of Cochrane reviews
(Elsevier, 2022-12) Boulos, Leah; Rothfus, Melissa; Goudreau, Alex; Manley, Alison
Objective: To examine the prevalence of presumed predatory publications in Cochrane reviews, which are considered the gold standard. Study Design and Setting: We selected two Cochrane Networks with broad scope: the Musculoskeletal, Oral, Skin and Sensory (MOSS) Network and the Public Health and Health Systems Network. From reviews produced by all Review Groups in those Networks in 2018 and 2019, we extracted included study citations published after 2000. For each citation, we assessed the journal and publisher using an algorithmic process based on characteristics known to be common among predatory publishers. Knowing that predatory status can be fluid and subjective, we scored citations on a spectrum from "reputable" to "presumed predatory" based on publication characteristics available at the time of assessment. Results: We extracted 6965 citations from 321 reviews. Of these citations, 5734 were published by entities widely accepted as reputable, leaving 1591 for further assessment. We flagged 75 citations as concerning. Discussion: Cochrane reviews across diverse topic areas included studies from flagged publishers, although this number is small. Because of this, there is potential for studies from predatory journals to influence the conclusions of systematic reviews. Researchers should stay aware of this potential threat to the quality of reviews.
Application and expansion of wood-based derivatives as reinforcement of packaging
(University of New Brunswick, 2024-05) Zhou, Yuyang; Gong, Meng
Fiber-based energy absorption tubes could be designed as corner post reinforcement for packaging. This thesis explored the impact of geometric parameters, material composition, and relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical properties of fiber-based tubes, designed as reinforcement for corrugated cardboard boxes. It examined the compressive response of boxes under varying RH conditions, noting that an increase in RH from 50% to 90% significantly reduced peak load (plc) and specific energy absorption (SEA) by up to 20%. Moisture adversely affected the modulus of elasticity, inducing buckling in longer columns and crushing in shorter ones. Both types of columns showed a 20% reduction in performance at greater lengths. The findings underscored the effectiveness of fiber-based reinforcements in enhancing the compression resistance of cardboard packaging, with increases of approximately 230% and 710% for paper-based and veneer-based reinforcements, respectively. A 20% RH increase resulted in a 40% decrease in the compression strength of the packaging.