Data stream affinity propagation for clustering indoor space localization data
University of New Brunswick
In the age of Internet of Things, the ability to find spatio-temporal patterns of people and devices moving in indoor spaces has become crucial for developing new applications. In particular, clustering indoor localization data streams has gained popularity in recent years due to their potential of generating relevant information for planning building automation, evaluating energy efficiency scenarios, and simulating emergency protocols. In this thesis, a data stream Affinity Propagation (DSAP) clustering algorithm is proposed for analyzing indoor localization data generated from e-counters and WiFi localization systems. The data sets are a sequence of potentially infinite and non-stationary data streams, arriving continuously where random access to the data is not feasible and storing all the arriving data is impractical. The DSAP algorithm is implemented based on a two-phase approach (i.e., online and offline clustering phases) using the landmark time window model. The proposed DSAP is non-parametric in the sense of not requiring any prior knowledge about the number of clusters and their respective labels. The validation and performance of the DSAP algorithm are evaluated using real-world data streams from two experiments aimed at finding stair usage patterns and occupancy behaviour in indoor spaces.