ItemExploring the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Canadian wait times for elective spinal surgery(University of New Brunswick, 2023-06) Smith, Taylor; Hebert, JefferyBackground: Increased waiting times for spinal surgeries can have detrimental effects on patients, and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is unknown. Aim: To identify the impact on wait time days for spine surgery of the Covid-19 pandemic and to quantify the number of patients awaiting surgery and surgeries being performed. Study Design: Longitudinal analysis of prospectively collected data. Study Outcomes: Days between surgical consultation to surgery (T2) and days between general practitioner referral to surgery (T3), the number of patients awaiting surgery, and the counts of spinal surgeries performed. Data Analysis: Quantile regression was used to identify median wait time days. Counts were used to report waitlists and surgeries. Results: The Covid-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on both the national T2 and T3 wait times for elective and non-elective cohorts. Patients on the waitlist for both cohorts increased during the pandemic, and the number of surgeries being performed declined. ItemA methodology development for nanostructured composite particle synthesis for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing(University of New Brunswick, 2023-05) Sripada, Jagannadh V S N; Saha, Gobinda C.Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing (CSAM) is being used to overcome the disadvantages of conventional manufacturing by introducing layer-by-layer build-up and avoiding thermally induced processing challenges through kinetic energy deposition. The present study focuses on multi-material CSAM deposits, specifically metal matrix composites (MMC) and ceramic-metallic (cermet) composites. The synthesis of MMC feedstock was carried out using high-energy mechanical alloying (HE-MA) and two material systems were designed based on deposit strength and lightweight criteria: Al6061-graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and Al6061-nanodiamond (ND). The research question governing the two systems was uniquely formulated to address the influence of MMC composition, particle size, and shape on the cold spray (CS) deposit microstructure and bonding characteristics at the particle-particle and particlesubstrate interface. The particles and deposits were characterized utilizing experimental and analytical techniques which provided insights into particle size distribution (PSD), morphology and microstructural evolution, elemental composition, crystallite size reduction, microstrain formation, and embedment of GNP and ND over the milling duration. The results indicated that it was feasible to obtain the desired PSD for the CS deposition with >80% (by volume) particles lying in the 5-104 μm range using 5-mm-diameter balls, 10:1 ball-to-powder ratio (BPR), and 4 hours of milling. The second class of multi-material CS deposit explored was ceramic-dominant cermet. This work provided experimental findings from spraying an 85wt.%Al2O3-15wt.%Al6061(T6) cermet composite at two gas stagnation pressures of 1.7MPa and 2.4MPa onto two substrates: AISI 1018 and 17-4PH steels. Higher gas stagnation pressure was responsible for greater alumina retention in deposits without any discernible change in deposit interface hardness. Vickers indentation fracture test (VIFT) and residual stress measurements were employed to evaluate the interface bonding and deposit characteristics. Interface toughness increased by 8% when sprayed at a lower stagnation pressure of 1.7 MPa on AISI 1018 in comparison to 17-4PH (4.63 MPa-m1/2 vs. 3.69 MPa-m1/2). The laser shock peening (LSP) technique showed a change in stress profiles from tensile to compressive (with the greatest value decreasing from +197 MPa to -274 MPa). Overall, the presented work provided new and promising results concerning CS composite particle deposition. The insight gained requires further research incorporating other Cermet compositions. ItemClassroom learning community: A co-mingling of student and teacher voices in a Grade 5 mathematics classroom(University of New Brunswick, 2023-03) Smith-Ellis, Shari; Brien, KenThis study examined the impact of student voices mingling with the teacher voice in a Grade 5 mathematics classroom through Professional Learning Community (PLC) and Communities of Practice (CoP) lenses. The purpose was to identify the impacts of mingling of the voices of the teacher and the students on assessment practices, student achievement, student engagement, and learning processes. Participants included the classroom teacher and 15 Grade 5 mathematics students. The literature review examined the roles of student voice, PLCs, and CoPs. This review highlighted a paucity of research done with upper elementary students to examine how their voices impact assessment practices and associated learning. A collaborative action inquiry (CAI) research study approach was used to develop this story. Three research questions guided this study: What are the shifts in operating a Grade 5 Mathematics classroom as a learning environment which incorporate aspects of PLCs, CoPs, and the greater involvement of students’ voices? How do the relationships among the members of the classroom evolve as students are encouraged to act as co-constructors and co-decision makers of their learning? How do these shifts impact student achievement? Methods of data collection included individual participant reflective journals, interviews, photographs, and observations. Truth about - and equity in - education are limited when the predominantly listened to voices are the adults involved. This CAI research shares one story of how children were listened to and how the children’s voices significantly impacted their learning and their teacher in the classroom they shared. Four findings highlighted this study. First, the children expressed the importance of fun in learning. Second, they indicated their preference for learning together rather than individually. Third, there was an increased resolve for the teacher to think critically about power relations in a classroom. For the teacher, it was important to advocate for all members of the classroom learning community to collaborate in assessment creation, tracking, and analysis to plan for learning. The development of Classroom Learning Community (CLC) questions guided collaboration. Fourth, the children affirmed how crucial it is to acknowledge that they can express what works for them in their learning. Therefore, it is critical for the teacher to remember to continue to listen to children’s voices. ItemHigh-speed S-band linear microwave amplifier system for the VIOLET CubeSat mission(University of New Brunswick, 2023-05) Siddiqua, Sarah; Petersen, Brent R.CubeSat NB’s VIOLET mission selected the amateur frequencies in S-band to transmit the payload data and communicate with the ground station. The communication system must follow the frequency coordination and power requirement allocated within the international amateur radio union (IARU) license. In this thesis, the design, simulation, fabrication, and testing of a linear microwave amplifier system that offers an easy interface with the VIOLET structure is presented. The proposed system is a multistage amplifier transceiver system that can amplify the signal up to the IARU permissible EIRP limit of 33 dBm. Matching networks, stability analysis, and special power amplifier biasing schemes were optimized to achieve the mission requirements. The test result exhibits 31.5 dBm output power at the rated input with no noticeable harmonic power. The cascaded amplifier provides 46 dB to 47 dB signal gain within the 2 MHz VIOLET bandwidth. ItemEvaluation of audit tools for age-friendly active transportation planning in New Brunswick(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Sedaghat, Zahra; Hanson, TrevorThis thesis aimed to evaluate audit tools for age-friendly Active Transportation (AT) planning in New Brunswick. The research objectives were to identify and compare age-friendly audit tools for AT infrastructure, assess the age-friendliness of AT in two NB cities, evaluate the outcome of audits for potential engineering decision-making on a micro and macro level, and identify opportunities for tool improvements. The research methodology involved selecting the most relevant tools, pilot testing, and choosing the best tool (SWEAT-R) to evaluate 62 road network segments. The GIS-based tool developed allowed for an objective assessment of age-friendliness. Key findings include the evaluation of Fredericton and Saint John, and the ratio of older adults to the level of age-friendliness in each dissemination area (DA) of these two cities. The study's contribution to transportation engineering lies in its ability to improve engineering decision-making regarding age-friendly AT planning. ItemDetection and diagnosis of the invasive swim bladder parasite, Anguillicola crassus, in American eels (Anguilla rostrata)(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Scott Luna, Stephanie; Duffy, MichaelAnguillicola crassus is an invasive parasitic nematode that infects the swim bladder of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) throughout most of the eel’s native range. Declines in eel populations are attributed in part to A. crassus infection, with swim bladder damage impairing their survival and/or migration to the Sargasso Sea, where they migrate for reproduction. Hydroelectric dams on inland rivers, such as dams on the Wolastoq | Saint John River (W|SJR), New Brunswick, Canada, impede both upstream eel migration and parasite transmission. Thus, head ponds above dams could serve as refugia for stocking and translocation of parasite-free eels to support conservation initiatives. Based on eel life stage (pre-elvers, elvers, yellow) and month/location of eel collection, I assessed A. crassus infections in this system, using existing diagnostic tools (light microscopy and PCR/sequencing) as well as a new diagnostic methodology that I developed (autofluorescence microscopy). The high prevalence of A. crassus infection in elvers and yellow eels precludes their use in parasite-free translocation. However, the absence of infection in pre-elvers entering estuarine locations in March and April supports their use in conservation initiatives. ItemExamination of the relative strength of trophic interactions on species abundance(University of New Brunswick, 2022-08) Yoo, Sang-Ho; Houlahan, J.Trophic cascades occur when the predation of prey has indirect effects on taxa at lower trophic levels in the same food chain (top-down effects), or the direct effect of primary productivity on herbivores has indirect effects on taxa at higher trophic levels (bottom-up effects). To assess whether top-down or bottom-up effects are stronger and/or more common across natural systems, I obtained the mean correlation between interacting species-pairs, then quantified the proportion of positive versus negative correlations. I found weak support for bottom-up effects. From my analyses of 3-species food chains, I found no support for either top-down or bottom-up cascades. There was, however, evidence of species that reduced prey abundance but increased predator abundance, preventing the possibility of cascading effects in either direction. If ‘blocker’ species are ubiquitous in natural food webs, it would be one explanation for why I didn’t find evidence that trophic cascades were strong or common. ItemEffective musical affect: How emotional content in music impacts player behaviour and experience in video games(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Roberts, Joshua David; Bateman, Scott; Rea, DanielMusic in video games can affect both player behaviour and player experience, influencing perceived tension, immersion, and enjoyment. Most research studying music’s effect on player experience have focused on simple musical parameters, such as tempo, yet less is known about the effect of emotional content on player behaviour and experience. In this paper, we examine to what degree players’ in-game behaviours and player experiences are influenced by the emotional qualities of background music. Our research showed that when participants listened to powerful music, there was a significant increase in tension and risk-taking play-style choices when compared to their behaviour listening to peaceful music. By furthering our understanding of musical affect’s impact on perceived tension and play-style, we provide game designers and composers with more agency in influencing player decision-making in tense environments, specifically guiding players towards or away from risk-taking behaviour. ItemOperational planning for health transport of older adults in New Brunswick(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Riordon, Barry E.; Hanson, TrevorTransportation to healthcare facilities can be challenging for older drivers (aged 65+) due to aging-related health issues. Volunteer Driver Programs (VDP) have emerged as an alternative for some older adults, but their capacity to meet the needs of an aging population is uncertain, given little is known about existing demand. This thesis utilized administrative health data to develop metrics for trip rates, distances, and health purposes for older adults. 368,525 hospital records and 7,048,025 physician billing records from 2005-2011 were analyzed, revealing one-way travel distances ranging from 11-63 km (hospitals) and 11-44 km (physician visits). 78% of admissions and 92% of discharges occurred between 6 AM-6 PM for hospital visits, daily and monthly factors were also determined. In New Brunswick, average daily admissions were 11.2 (hospitals) and 214.5 (physician visits). Transportation service delivery models were also explored based upon health record observations, and a non-profit non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) program was recommended for further investigation. ItemMechanical performance of timber connection made by wood welding technique(University of New Brunswick, 2022-08) Wang, Xiaoyu; Gong, MengA new type of timber connection is developed using the wood friction welding technique, which is a non-adhesive gluing process. During this process, heat is needed to melt the wood material in the course of pressing one wood piece to another via linear vibration or rotation. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanical performance of timber connections made via the rotation welding. The spruce-pine-fir (S-P-F) lumber was used to fabricate the members, and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) was used to make the dowels with a diameter of 19mm (3/4"). The bolts were used to make the timber connections as well as for comparison purpose. Two loading directions (parallel (PA) and perpendicular (PE)) and three connection types (push-in dowel (P), welding dowel (W), and bolted (B)), were considered in the design of experiment. There were two (2) groups of three (3) sets each. Each set had six (6) replicates, making a total of 36 specimens. Each joint specimen was performed on a universal mechanical testing machine. It was found that (1) The peak load and initial stiffness of set PA-B were 33kN and 5kN/mm, which were about 135% larger than and 45% less than set PA-W. The peak load and initial stiffness of set PA-P were 14% and 50% larger than that of set PA-W. (2) The yield loads for sets PA-P and PA-W were almost the same, being 13kN, which were about 150% lower than that of set PA-B. (3) The ductility and energy accumulated of set PA-B were about 30% less than and 140% larger than set PA-W. (4) The average peak load and initial stiffness of group PA were about 25% and 27% greater than those of group PE.(5) Johansen Theory was found to be conservative in derivation of engineering design values of wood dowelled and metal bolted joints. (6) The failure of wood doweled joint specimens was the fracture of the dowels, and the failure of bolted joint specimens was the crushing of member wood. (7) The mechanical properties of welded joints were similar to those of push-in joints. (8) The welding process did not generate cracks, minimizing stress concentrations, in wood members, in comparison to push-in process. It has great potential in fabrication of dowel-laminated wood products and repair/reinforcement of laminated beams. As for the future work, application of welding techniques should be explored during the manufacturing and construction of timber products and buildings, such as reinforcing glued laminated wood with notches. Key words: wood welding, timber joints, peak load, initial stiffness, yield load, ductility, energy dissipation, European Yield Model. ItemThe cost of loyalty: the Upper Canada Rebellion and the claims for losses commission, 1837-1840(University of New Brunswick, 2022-09) Szo, Jonathan Robert Allen; Mancke, ElizabethThe Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837-1838 was an armed uprising in Toronto from December 4-7, 1837, followed by the ensuing ‘Patriot War.’ Despite the shock the insurrection caused the government, notably Lieutenant-Governor Sir Francis Bond Head and the ‘Family Compact,’ the rebellion had been years in the making due to governmental injustices carried out by these individuals. In the aftermath of the rebellion, the legislative assembly of Upper Canada created a Claims for Losses Commission to handle restitution for individuals who suffered losses at the hands of the rebels. The commission not only had to contend with losses far exceeding their initial estimates, but damages caused by their own representatives. Due to the nature and number of losses, the reports of the commissioners from 1838-1840 provide tremendous insight into the impact of the Upper Canada Rebellion on common citizens, and the relationship between the governors and governed at that time. ItemApproaches toward white light emission and programmable fluorescence, along with the serendipitous discovery of a series of pericyclic cascade reactions(University of New Brunswick, 2023-06) Price, Jayden T.D.; Eisler, SaraResearch in molecular fluorescence has led to more energy-efficient LED displays, single-molecule level detection limits in microscopy, and increasingly complex anti-counterfeiting measures. However, synthetic and design challenges associated with the realization of white, red, and blue light-emitting systems with the properties required for commercialization still exist. First, we explore the use of multicomponent photoluminescent systems, containing a mixture of simultaneously emitting organic molecules to access white light and programmable emission color. By mitigating the potential for energy transfer through the control of concentration, we show that the emission color is approximated as a linear combination of the emitting components and their corresponding brightness. Based on these results, we demonstrate that the ratio of red, green, and blue emitters needed to achieve hard-to-reach WLE can be predictably determined. Second, we show that one molecular scaffold, thioarylmaleimide (TAM), can be used to access blue to deep-red emission colors with high quantum yields in just one synthetic step. A series of mono and bis-substituted TAMs are synthesized from commercially available starting material in moderate to excellent yields via Suzuki-Miyaura (SM) cross-coupling. Photophysical properties, including wavelength and quantum yield, are controlled by adjusting the conjugation, connectivity, and the number of thioaryl groups attached to the maleimide. A marked decrease in the SM coupling yield of monosubstituted TAMs prompted the serendipitous discovery of a series of pericyclic cascade reactions leading to crowded thienyl and benzo[b]thienyl fused architectures. Stereochemical assignment is achieved using a combination of NMR studies, chemical shift calculations and DP4+ analysis. Transition-state calculations support an asynchronous concerted mechanism and provide support to rationalize the regio- and diastereoselectivity that is observed. ItemData driven mission planning: Airborne Marine Megafauna Survey(University of New Brunswick, 2023-06) Power, Joshua; Meng, Julian; Drouin, Marc-Antoine; Coady, YvonneThe Government of Canada uses aerial population surveys to inform decisions relating to conservational and economic policy. These surveys aim to monitor species to estimate the distribution and abundance of marine megafauna, given its impact on policy survey accuracy is important. The primary factor hindering the success of surveys is poor sub-surface visibility, caused by glare. To address this adversity survey coordinators, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), utilize a detection function to account for areas with sub-optimal visibility by predicting the likelihood of megafauna existing below the surface of interest. The parameters used to tune this function are produced from subjective human input which introduces uncertainty into population estimates. This research presents a means of accurately classifying glare intensity to inform detection function parameters reliably. Additionally, this research presents a glare prediction model, to mitigate glare before it occurs, a phenomenon long viewed as an occupational hazard. ItemThe cultural safety of publicly available maternity services to Indigenous women in New Brunswick(University of New Brunswick, 2023-05) Powell, Erika A.; Hickey, JasonPregnant Indigenous women in Canada suffer from a lack of access to culturally safe prenatal care but minimal research has been done on this topic locally. This thesis sought to explore the experiences and perspectives of Indigenous women and Knowledge Holders in New Brunswick, relative to the cultural safety of publicly available prenatal care. Eight Indigenous mothers and three Knowledge Holders were engaged in research conversations, a community engagement session, and/or a sharing circle. Collaborative thematic analysis resulted in three overarching themes, including 1) Relationality 2) Health Systems and 3) Indigenous Ways of Knowing. Indigenous women and Knowledge Holders have significant experience, considerable knowledge, and valuable insight regarding the cultural safety and future of maternity care in New Brunswick. Their perspectives informed the development of 10 recommendations that we (the research team) hope will lead to improvements in cultural safety for maternity care and support development of community-led programming. ItemWaking Chloris: Early modern Chloris texts, 1660-1720(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Peacock, Kathleen; Snook, EdithOriginally tied to the tale of a nymph-turned-goddess in Ovid’s Fasti, the name Chloris appears in dozens of early modern texts, from anonymously penned broadside ballads to poetry composed by a courtier to The Amorous Prince: Or, the Curious Husband, one of the first female-authored plays to grace the English stage. Although these works often invoke the pastoral, they depict no singular Chloris: she is an ideal against whom other women are judged; an object of lust that scorns and effeminizes men; an unhappily married woman; a virgin who dreams of masculine identities; and a woman driven to cross-dress after being tricked out of her virtue. Placing a selection of ephemeral texts and canonical works in dialogue with each other, Waking Chloris considers representations of gender roles, female desire, and sexuality across class structures and social positions, illustrating the possibilities of intertextual readings that span both high and low culture. ItemBipolar electrochemistry for the synthesis of functionalized carbon-polypyrrole supercapacitor electrodes(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Patterson, Nigel; Ignaszak, AnnaSupercapacitors belong to the family of electrical energy storage systems alongside batteries and fuel cells. Their unique feature is having both high power and energy density making them suitable options where fast charging and long-lasting power are desired. Supercapacitance comes in two flavours, electric double layer capacitance (EDLC) and pseudocapacitance (PC). This thesis combines both in a single electrode using carbon EDLC base and polypyrrole PC coating. Various methods to bind the two using bipolar electrochemistry are the major focal points of this thesis. Bipolar electrochemistry is a wireless electrochemical setup that is green, scalable, and easily produces asymmetric/gradient products. The first project functionalizes carbon electrodes through diazonium salt reduction to electrochemically graft a linker group. Polypyrrole then binds to this linker in a copolymer-like fashion. Results showed that aqueous conditions produced a better product than non-aqueous conditions at 200 mF cm−2 compared to 11 mF cm−2. The second project incorporates metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as the binding agent. This class of materials has some of the largest surface area densities ever measured. Filling this space with polypyrrole transforms the MOF from an electrical insulator to a conductor. Plain powder forms of three different MOFs synthesized using the solvothermal method were used to test the proof of concept. The results showed specific capacitances ranging from 300 to 600 mF cm−2. From this the MOF synthesis was adapted to use bipolar electrochemistry for direct electroplating. Once again carbon featured as the base while Cu MOF was deposited by the anodic dissolution method. The MOF layers were fragile and prone to detachment, but thermal oxidation of pyrrole in air was found to leave the MOFs intact. Loading solutions with higher pyrrole content resulted in greater improvements to the supercapacitance, up to 28 mF cm−2. ItemEffect of elevated temperature on the bond strength of wood block shear specimens(University of New Brunswick, 2022-09) Qi, Jianan; Gong, MengThis report examined the effect of elevated temperature on the shear strength of wood block shear specimens bonded using two types of adhesives. The adhesives used were phenol formaldehyde (PF) and polyurethane (PUR). Each type had two recipes, SPF and CPF for surface and core layers of oriented strand boards, and 1-component (1-PUR) and 2- component (2-PUR) for PUR. The species of wood used was sugar maple (Acer saccharinum) of an average air-dry density of 0.739g/cm3. Four groups of block shear specimens were made, and four temperature levels were employed, 20°C, 80°C, 150°C, and 200°C. Each group had 11 replicates, generating a total of 176 specimens tested. It was found that (1) The shear strength of all PF specimens linearly decreased as the temperature increased from 20°C to 200°C, with CPF decreasing by 51.4%, and SPF decreasing by 65.9%. There was also a decline in the shear strength of PURs specimens in a non-linear way as the temperature increased from 20°C to 200°C. The most significant decrease in shear strength was observed to be 89.6% and 53.7% for 1-PUR and for 2-PUR, respectively. (2) In the block shear tests, the highest peak loads differed among groups with 13,879 N for 1-PUR, 29,588 N for 2-PUR, 30,011 N for CPF, and 27,103 N for SPF. (3) In 200°C, 1-PUR and 2-PUR had higher coefficients of variation of more than 50%, 58% and 53% for 1-PUR and 2-PUR, respectively. At 200°C, the stability of PF adhesive was higher than that of PUR. 2-PUR performed much better than 1-PUR at all levels of temperature used. (4) CPF and SPF did not show remarkable difference in bond strength, which was because the Tg of PF was about 200°C, being higher than that used in this study. (5) The shear strength of groups 1-PUR and 2-PUR did not have a significant difference when the temperature being 150°C and over since PUR had a Tg of around 80°C. (6) In the block shear test, the percentages of wood failure at maximum load were 58.72%, 35.70%, and 47.92% for groups 2-PUR, CPF and SPF, respectively. The group SPF recorded the highest wood failure percentage of 61.40% at 80°C. (7) The percentages of wood failure of group 2-PUR were 58.72%, 53.26%, 37.54%, and 25.58% at the temperatures of 20°C, 80°C, 150°C, and to 200°C, respectively. The percentage of wood failure decreased as the temperature increased. It could be recommended to conduct the tests at a temperature of higher than 200°C for PF-bonded specimens and a temperature of 100°C, 120°C, and 180°C for PUR-bonded specimens with an aim to gather more first-hand information about how the elevated temperature impacts the block shear strength. Key words: adhesive, elevated temperature, block shear test, shear strength, percentage wood failure ItemFor the empire, for each other: The motivations of auxiliaries in antiquity and the Great War(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) Paddock, Spencer; Sears, MatthewThis thesis explores combat motivation among ancient Roman auxiliaries and members of the Indian Expeditionary Force D during the First World War. This study is an intellectual exercise that analyzes literature from psychology, ancient history, and modern history, supplemented by primary sources pertaining to the ancient and modern subject group. This thesis considers the impact of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors on combat motivation. This study shows that there are parallels in the motivations of the ancient auxiliaries and the modern IEF in terms of group cohesion, internalized martial identities, and economic benefits, but differences in terms of political benefits. The prospect of citizenship appears to have motivated ancient auxiliary recruitment, while the impact of political benefits appears unclear in the context of the IEF. This study shows that interdisciplinary studies of combat motivation can expand scholarly inquiries into new territory and can lead to new discussions. ItemGIS based modelling for forest road alignments, culvert placements and logging trail delineation(University of New Brunswick, 2023-06) Owusu Afriyie, Nana Agyei; Arp, PaulEstablishing stable forest road and trail networks requires proper trail and culvert placements. Past procedures involved manual surveying and hand digitizing road-stream crossings to estimate expected stream discharge for each location. This thesis reports on research-developed semi-automated ArcGIS/ArcMap tools to (i) align already digitized roads with DEM-recognized roadbeds, (ii) locate road-stream crossings and determine potential culvert locations and diameter, (iii) determine expected stream discharge and (iv) determine least-cost trail paths using DEM-generated cost rasters. Results show that hand-digitized roads veered off DEM roadbeds, sometimes by 20 meters or more. Similarly, mapped culvert locations do not always align with actual road-stream crossings. Also, existing culverts tend to accommodate 50 mm/day but not necessarily 100 mm/day discharge events, thereby leading to washouts. This thesis explores and demonstrates how the developed tools combined with the 1-m resolution LiDAR-DEM coverage for New Brunswick can bring road, culvert, and trail locations into better hydro-topographic alignments. ItemExamining the role of mindfulness in stress management: Interviews with sports coaches(University of New Brunswick, 2023-04) On, John Michael; Tymowski-Gionet, Gabriela I.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.The chronic and acute stress experienced by sport coaches may negatively affect coaching performance, leading to burnout or early retirement. Mindfulness is maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, through a gentle and nurturing lens. The study objectives were to examine the sport coaches existing stress-coping strategies and to identify the perceived barriers and enabling factors to practice mindfulness using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Eligibility criteria included certified sports coaches over 19 years old and one year of coaching experience. This was a deductive qualitative study using a thematic approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted online. Sixteen sport coaches (female= 6, male= 10, median age= 43) participated in the study. This study identified that sports coaches use multiple coping strategies proactively, reactively, or combination. A paradigm shift in coaching roles and identity is needed to help sport coaches see themselves as performers alongside their athletes.