Biomechanical assessment of paced and maximal effort repetitive symmetrical lifting in Canadian soldiers – a sex comparison

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University of New Brunswick


This study examined the sex related differences of neuromuscular and biomechanical effects of paced and maximal effort performance during a short duration military lifting evaluation. Thirty-one Canadian soldiers participated in the Canadian Armed Force’s sandbag lift component of the FORCE evaluation twice, by pacing the task and by performing the task at maximum effort. Fifteen women and sixteen men were studied to determine differences in sex. The participant’s biomechanical and neuromuscular effects were recorded with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) motion sensor system by XSENS, and surface electromyography electrodes (sEMG). The maximal effort lifting task overall resulted in lesser values of cross correlation, and more exaggerated joint angles. Maximal effort lifting required more EMG activity than paced lifting. Women required more trunk motion and EMG activity compared to men. There are significant differences in how women and men apply lifting approaches and adjust to paced and maximal effort lifting tasks.