Browsing Honours Theses by Issue Date
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ItemAn inside look at a professional modern dance company(University of New Brunswick, 2016) MacMillan, Marissa; Burns, Janet Mary ChristineThis thesis explores the experiences and collective activity of participants in the art world of Bodies in Motion, a local modern dance organization from Hartford, Chilton. This qualitative research uses Becker’s (1982) framework for studying social organizations, in conjunction with Unruh’s (1979) theory of social worlds and social types, to understand how participants create and maintain the functioning of their social world. The research followed a symbolic interactionist, theoretical approach, where data was collected through interviews and participant-observation. Through these techniques, eleven participants were asked about their experience with Bodies in Motion and the art sphere within Hartford. The research found that Becker’s framework and Unruh’s social types can help to determine the dynamics of social worlds. ItemMid-to Late Holocene changes in the hydrographic conditions in the Baltic Sea, as inferred from dinoflagellate cysts assemblages(University of New Brunswick, 2017) Manley, Sander; Limoges, AudreyDinocyst assemblages from marine sediments in the south-central Baltic Sea provide a record of changes in the Holocene Baltic Sea hydrographic system for the last 6000 years. A low diversity assemblage of four genera of autotrophic dinocysts is observed throughout, dominated by the species Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dinocyst assemblages, especially process length variation in O.centrocarpum are used to interpret qualitative paleosalinity. The Littorina Transgression, a period of increasing salinity was already underway in the eastern Gotland Deep by 6000 years BP, and continued until 4750 years BP. The highest dinocyst concentrations were observed during Mid Holocene Warming 6000 - 4000 years BP. Littorina Sea A Phase (6000 - 4750 years BP) is defined by an inferred major increase in salinity. From 4750 - 1000 years BP, only minor changes in salinity are reflected in the dinocyst assemblage. From 4000 - 1000 years BP, stable, low concentrations of dinocysts are interpreted as a result of shorter blooming seasons during Neoglacial summers. Littorina Sea B Phase (4750- 1000 years BP) is defined by inferred minor fluctuations in salinity and stable concentrations of dinocysts throughout. Increased dinocyst abundance is observed from 1000 - 800 years BP before declining from 800 - 100 years BP to low concentrations (25 000 dinocysts/g sediment). This is interpreted as caused in part by longer, warmer summers during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and shorter, cooler summers during the Little Ice Age as well as increased nutrient runoff into the Baltic Sea from increased anthropogenic land use during the MWP. Dinocyst assemblages indicate gradually decreasing salinity from 1000 - 100 years BP. Late Littorina Sea B Phase (1000 - 100 years BP) is defined by an inferred minor decrease salinity and elevated concentrations of dinocysts during the MWP. ItemInfluence of mineralogical composition and texture on induced polarization effects in gold-bearing rocks from the Hebert-Brent Showing, Yellowknife Greenstone Belt, Northwest Territories(University of New Brunswick, 2017) Richardson, Mark; Butler, Karl; Lentz, DavidIn June 2015, geological mapping discovered significant concentrations of gold in the Hebert-Brent (HB) Showing situated within an 11 m-wide highly sulphidized sericite-ankerite schist shear zone, hosted in a 10-15 m-wide, quartz-feldspar porphyry. The HB gold showing is located within the Barney Deformation Corridor of the Yellowknife Greenstone Belt (YGB), Northwest Territories. On July 29th, 2016, two 400 m long IP/resistivity surveys, with 5/10 m electrode spacing were acquired using a multi-gradient array. The survey identified zones of high IP response (chargeability) where expected, in areas of known disseminated sulphide mineralization. In addition, the IP survey exposed a previously undiscovered anomalous IP source. In this study, a prototype two electrode laboratory apparatus was used to investigate factors influencing electrical resistivity and IP effects in selected mineralized and non-mineralized rocks from the survey area. The study revealed information that may be utilized in future geophysical exploration in this area. It was determined that samples from Hebert-Brent are generally less resistive than non-mineralized rocks within this area. However, as a consequence of preferential alignment of silicate layers with foliation, anisotropic effects should be anticipated in this area. The IP response of the mineralized samples was in general greater in magnitude than the non-mineralized samples. It was also determined that there are some IP effects related to highly resistive, non-mineralized rocks in this area. These anomalous IP effects are likely a result of some uncertainty in the measurement apparatus. Normalizing the PFE IP effect by resistivity served to make the mineralized samples standout from highly resistive ones that also exhibited elevated IP responses. Comparison of mineralized and non-mineralized spectral curves were shown to be characteristically different. In addition, the peak phase angle between 0.1 - 10 Hz was found to correlate with increased percent frequency effect. It is recommended that surveys which sense the conductivity of an ore body should be used to aid in delineating massive and electrically conductive parts of a sulphide body. In addition, it is recommended that future IP and resistivity surveys in the area use a measurement of IP effect normalized by resistivity (such as the Metal Factor; MF) to highlight anomalous bodies that are prospective for elevated sulphide (and associated gold) content. Based on the findings in this study, spectral induced polarization (SIP) surveying may aid in identifying mineralized rocks in HB, as the phase maximum (between 0.1 and 10 Hz) is in general greater than that of the non-mineralized country rocks. Testing of the two electrode apparatus was shown to provide accurate and repeatable measurements on both the mineralized and non-mineralized rocks used in this study. However, more testing of the measurement apparatus is recommended to assess its reliability for very highly resistive samples. ItemInvestigation of antimicrobial activity of Canadian medicinal plant extracts(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Dao, Khoi Thien; Gray, Christopher; Johnson, JohnMethanolic extracts of seven Canadian medicinal plants were investigated for antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and a fungal organism (Candida albicans). Chamerion angustifolium extract was highly bioactive against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; Crataegus sp. extract was moderately bioactive against S. aureus, but had a low bioactivity against C. albicans. The extract from Betula papyrifera had a low bioactive against both S. aureus and C. albicans. The active constituents of C. angustifolium, Crataegus sp., and B. papyrifera were detected via separation using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography followed by testing against S. aureus using bioautography. This is the first study to report antimicrobial activity of Crataegus sp. native to Canada and first study to find the antimicrobial constituents of C. angustifolium and B. papyrifera. ItemGrimm origins: Fairy tale intertexts in Margaret Atwood's short fiction and poetry(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Cormier, Kayla; Maier, Sarah; Creelman, David ItemCultivation of endophytic fungi inhabiting Abies balsamea using two techniques: a comparative study(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Fitzherbert, Tyson; Gray, Christopher; Johnson, JohnTwo cultivation techniques: leaf segment cultivation and dilution-series cultivation, were compared for recovery of endophytes from needles of Abies balsamea collected in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Endophytes were cultured on 2% malt extract agar and morphology of the endophytic growth was used to aid identification of distinct isolates. Endophytes were isolated from A. balsamea needles using the leaf segment cultivation method at a frequency of 13%, all replicates of two distinct isolates. Endophytes were isolated form eight of 25 prepared isolation plates for the dilution-series method. All endophytic growth from the dilution-series method was single-celled yeast species, while the endophytic growth from the leaf segment method was exclusively filamentous fungal species; thus, dichotomy was seen between the two methods of isolation. Item"Reader, I murdered him" : Neo-Victorian representations of women in adaptations of Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Friars, Rachel; Maier, Sarah ItemContribution of variability in embryo development rate and status at hatch to the protracted hatch period of female American lobster Homarus americanus(University of New Brunswick, 2018) White, Lydia; Rochette, Rémy; Zou, LiwenFemale American lobsters typically hatch their embryos over protracted hatch periods of 15-32 days. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this intra-brood variation in hatch time, I reared individual embryos from June to September 2017 at a constant temperature of 9°C, took photos of them at the beginning of the study and prior to hatch, and measured their eye size as a proxy of their development status. A multiple linear regression model explained 74% of the variability in hatch day, and indicated that embryos that hatcher earlier in the summer are (i) more developed come spring (44% of explained variance), (ii) less advanced in development (28%), and (iii) develop at a faster rate (27%). This study suggests that the process of hatching is not strictly associated with a particular role of the brooding female, but rather is perhaps mostly a function of processes or attributes of individual embryos. ItemIonoregulation in the cold: a possible barrier to freshwater colonization?(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Dougay, Brett; Speers-Roesch, BenTo test if ionoregulation in winter cold is a barrier to freshwater colonization at high latitudes in fishes, I investigated the ionoregulatory responses of euryhaline marine-adapted Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) and freshwater-adapted Banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) held in freshwater at 14°C and 0, 4, 14, and 28 days of exposure to winter temperature of 4°C. I predicted that the Banded killifish would be able to maintain their ionoregulation better then Mummichogs in the cold freshwater. I measured maximal activities of gill Na+-K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase, two key ionoregulatory enzymes, and plasma chloride concentrations as a measure of osmotic status. There were no significant differences between species and no effect of cold acclimation on plasma chloride or enzyme activities. The lack of ionoregulatory perturbation by winter cold in either species, especially the seawater-preferring mummichog, do not support the hypothesis that ionoregulation in winter is a barrier to freshwater colonization in fishes. ItemStaying inside the maze: Self-surveillance as an authoritative measure in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Floyd, Liam; Creelman, David; Maier, Sarah ItemIs there geographic variation in development rate of American lobster (Homarus americanus) embryos?(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Mawer, Kalen; R. Rochette; L. ZouAmerican lobster fisheries in Canada are managed via Lobster Fishing Areas, which are divided based on sociopolitical considerations rather than biological stocks. Bio-physical models use physical and biological parameters to predict larval dispersal and contribute to understanding the identity of stocks, and the connectivity between management areas. Hatching time of lobster embryos is an important parameter of these models, as it impacts the survival and transport of larvae. This study aims to determine whether embryo development functions used to predict hatch need to be “location-specific”. We sampled eggs from six locations in eastern Canada, reared them in the lab, and photographed them weekly to track embryo development based on changes in eye size. The results suggest that embryo development functions do not need to be developed for individual fishing ports, but that distinct development functions for larger marine systems may improve larval dispersal modelling and sustainable management of fisheries. ItemVictims seeking vengeance: Neo-Victorian visions of justice in young adult adaptations of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes(University of New Brunswick, 2018) Emerson, Norah; Maier, Sarah ItemEffects of environmental conditions on egg-laying dates in Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Fana, Natalia; Major, H.L.; Whidden, S.E.Climate change trends may have an impact on the timing of seasonal activities, and in particular the phenology of Atlantic Puffins. The purpose of this study was to investigate if changes in environmental conditions, such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST), are responsible for the observed delay in egg laying at Machias Seal Island (MSI), New Brunswick. I used monthly means for SST and egg laying dates over a period of 24 years (1995-2018) from MSI. I used general linear models in an AICc framework and found a positive relationship between egg laying dates and SST over time. I suggest continued long-term monitoring to assess future changes and the puffin’s ability to continue to adapt to those changes. ItemThe role of changes in citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase tissue activities in the thermal acclimation response of a winter-dormant fish, the cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Savoy, Tyler; Speers-Roesch, BenThe mechanisms underlying the winter dormancy seen in many fishes living at temperate to high latitudes has not been fully explored. Winter-active fishes enhance tissue enzyme activities at low temperatures in winter to help maintain whole-animal performance capacity, which would otherwise be lower in the cold. Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), despite being a winter-dormant model species, in recent laboratory experiments also have shown enhanced whole-animal exercise performance in the cold, but nothing is known about the underlying mechanisms of this compensation. I hypothesized that increases in citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities in tissues may help explain the compensation of exercise performance, which depends upon flux through these metabolic enzymes. In a previous experiment, juvenile cunner were acclimated to a range of temperatures and exhaustive swimming performance was measured. I measured activities of CS and LDH in white muscle and liver from these cunner acclimated to 2, 8, and 14°C, which bracket the temperature at which cunner become dormant (7.2°C). At 2°C, liver showed significant increases in LDH activity while CS activity was decreased. In white muscle, neither CS or LDH enzymes were significantly different across acclimation temperatures. I concluded that enhancement of metabolic enzyme activities in white muscle or liver of a winter-dormant model species is not an important determinant of the compensation of whole-animal exercise performance at colder temperatures. ItemThe effects of water temperature on the resting and post-exercise physiology in juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Miller, Ryan; Kieffer, JamesThe effects of cold-water temperature on the resting and post-exercise physiology were investigated in juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Hematocrit, protein, glucose, osmolality, and lactate were measured after four weeks of acclimation, at rest (at 3 °C, 6 °C, or 9 °C), or following five minutes of exercise (at 3 °C or 9 °C). At 3 °C, fish appeared motionless and were positioned at the bottom of the tank. At 9 °C, fish were visibly more active. Resting glucose, protein, lactate, and hematocrit levels were similar across temperatures, and resting osmolality values were lowest at 9 °C. Post-exercise lactate and glucose levels were similar at 3 and 9 °C. Post-exercise osmolality and hematocrit values increased at 9 °C only, and levels of protein decreased at both temperatures. Overall, sturgeon can survive at cold temperatures, but don’t show the typical physiological response to this type of exercise (i.e., increased glucose, lactate and osmolality). ItemPredicting development of American lobster (Homarus americanus) embryos from the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Casey, Kaitlin R.; Rochette, RémyThe timing of hatch of American lobster embryos affects the dispersal of larvae and hence connectivity among populations. Linear and exponential functions have been developed in the laboratory to predict embryo development in relation to temperature. In this study, 12 embryos from 12 females were sampled twice ≈ one month apart during the spring fishery at 13 sites in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, and their development status was assessed based on the size of their eye. Differences in average eye size between the first and second sample were taken as the “observed development”, which was compared to “predicted development” based on the functions and water temperature. The functions were unable to predict differences in development among the 13 sites, which could be due to sampling error, measurement error, and/or geographic variation in temperature-based embryonic development. This study suggests time-of-hatch predictions might be improved by assessing location-specific development rates. ItemDoes land-use affect bird abundance?(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Prosser, Jacob; Houlahan, JeffOver the last 50 years many species have seen negative population trends and scientists have identified habitat loss, change, and fragmentation as possible causes. I investigated the ability of random forest and boosted trees models to predict bird abundances based on land-use throughout the United States. Bird abundance data was acquired from the North American Breed Bird Survey (BBS) and land-use data was gathered by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium. The models had a mixed transferability between the training and test data with 14 of 21 models better fit the training data. The models were mixed in their ability to accurately predict abundances based on land-use compared to the mean; 14 of 21 models more accuracy predict abundance compared to the mean suggesting an effect of land-use on abundance. Six models were classified as “good,” 11 as “cautious,” and 4 as “poor.” ItemThe effects of fasting on aspects of thermal tolerance in juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Cook, Allyson; Kieffer, JamesSturgeon populations continue to decline because of damming of rivers (water diversion) and climate change. Both factors can affect the thermal profiles of the river, which can modify a species’ food resources. Studies on the stress response in sturgeon examine the impacts of a single stressor. The current study investigated the effects of food deprivation on the critical thermal tolerance (CTmax) and the physiology of shortnose sturgeon; the goal was to understand how fasting interacts with the physiological performance of sturgeon when challenged with am temperature stress. The CTmax and physiological responses of juvenile shortnose sturgeon fasted for one, three and seven days were investigated. CTmax did not change with increasing fasting levels. Plasma glucose, lactate and osmolality increased following thermal stress, but did not differ between different fasting periods. Overall, sturgeon can tolerate thermal stress well; however, the mechanism involved in thermal tolerance is unlikely related to nutritional status. ItemIdentification and DNA taxonomic analysis of a library of endophytic fungi(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Stack, Ryleigh A.; Gray, Christopher; Johnson, JohnEndophytes represent a largely untapped source of natural products. Despite a growing body of research, data and knowledge relating to endophyte biology and chemistry, one of the difficulties in endophyte research remains the accurate identification of endophytes. The advancements and development of molecular methods have provided researchers with tools that allow them to obtain an identification based on the endophyte’s DNA sequence, rather than its morphological and/or phenotypic characteristics. In the present study, the DNA extracted from 155 endophytes was analyzed following a DNA taxonomy methodology and compiled to give phylogenetic trees to obtain identifications based on the molecular properties of the endophytes, rather than their morphology. Of the 155 endophytes; 57 were identified to the species level, 65 to genus, 5 to class, 2 to subdivision, 10 to order, 15 to family, and 1 to subclass. ItemDetermination of a link between the taxonomic relationship of Canadian medicinal plants and the exhibited antibiotic activity of their crude extracts(University of New Brunswick, 2019) Therrien, Julie K.; Gray, ChristopherChemotaxonomy is effective in determining the expected chemical compounds found in extracts from different organisms. However, this is time-consuming and costly, as it is based on purified fractions of a chemical extract. Utilizing biological activity data of extracts and relating it to the taxonomic relationship of plants may be a more effective approach. The aim of this study was to determine if a link exists between the taxonomic relationship of plants and the exhibited antibiotic activity of their extracts. The antibiotic activity of methanolic extracts of 90 plants were evaluated against eight microorganisms. Bioactivity profiles were created and analyzed, using two separate methods. It was found that the lowest taxonomic level that correlated with the bioactivity profiles of the extracts was family.