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ItemDenominationalism in a Loyalist county: a social history of Charlotte, 1783–1940(University of New Brunswick, 1964) Acheson, Thomas WilliamThis thesis is a study of changing conditions and the factors that produced them in a segment of New Brunswick colonial society, Charlotte County, over a period of more than a century and a half. The purpose has been twofold, to demonstrate the social, economic and political changes which occurred within the period and to analyze the reasons for these changes. This examination of the social structure and ideas of the county has been accomplished through the medium of the religious denominations of the area. These denominations are generally the earliest and frequently the only social organizations in the communities under study and thus provide the most complete picture of the changes occurring over a period of time. Four major social movements may be observed throughout the period under study. The first of these was the arrival of the diverse Loyalist groups in the county in 1783–84, and their settlement, in many cases with the pre-Loyalist Americans. The second was a period of social and economic depression, extending to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, during which there was little growth but during which a distinctive colonial culture began to emerge among the county's inhabitants. The third movement was one of buoyant expansion engendered both by economic prosperity and a prolonged influx of British immigrants. This movement created a conflict between the traditions of the earlier colonial and later British settlers. By 1865 fully half the population of the county was of lrish, mostly Ulster, descent, and it is doubtful if one-quarter of the population could show male descent from a Loyalist. The principal reason for Charlotte's affirmative Confederation vote in 1866 probably stems from the antipathy between the county's Ulster Irish population and the American Fenian group: Finally, particularly after 1870, county society entered a period of economic regression. Increasingly the population became homogeneous in composition and parochial in outlook. This period also is marked by the triumph of the colonial American tradition within Charlotte. Throughout the entire period, two dominant themes can be traced, one economic and one social. Practically the whole economic history of Charlotte was shaped by the market demand for its rather specialized products: timber and fish. Prior to 1830, the principal market was primarily the British West Indies; from 1830 to 1860, it was primarily the British market; and from 1860 to 1875, the American. When the timber markets largely disappeared after 1875, the mainland economy split. Under the aegis of the National Policy, the middle St. Croix Valley developed an industrial manufacturing economy to provide for an internal Maritime market. The South Shore areas of the county reverted to a fishing economy similar to the islands with its major market in the United States. Thus, with the exception of brief periods, the county produced for market in which New Brunswick products were protected: the West Indies prior to 1830; the United Kingdom 1809–1860; the Canadian market after 1879. The social theme prevalent throughout the pre-1900 period is the conflict between the British and colonial American traditions. The conflict is discernible even within the early Loyalist Establishment. Its resolution in favour of the colonial tradition was complicated and delayed for at least a generation by the arrival of the British immigrants between 1816 and 1849. Only in the generation after 1870 did a value system, based upon the early puritan ethic of poverty with strong evangelical overtones, became generally accepted throughout the county. Over a period of time, every denomination in the county, regardless of its origins, has tended to become more staid and rational. Consequently there developed in almost every generation a radical Arminian sect to meet the social and emotional needs of a large segment of the population which deserted a real or nominal allegiance to the older denomination in which it felt a dissatisfaction. Of particular significance in the development of Charlotte were the demographic patterns of settlement and the population movements within the county. In periods of depression, emigration from the county generally occurred in a two generation cycle. The first generation moved from rural to village areas within the county, the second migrated from the county itself. Thus in each succeeding generation after 1860 it was the offspring of the rural inhabitants of the previous generation who came to dominate the county. ItemThe Impact of the Automobile on the Government of New Brunswick. 1897–1932.(University of New Brunswick, 1987) Allain, Charles Joseph; Young, MurrayG.T. Bloomfield, in his article on motorization in Saskatchewan between 1906 and 1934, pointed out that: "While the historical significance of the motor vehicle has been clearly recognized internationally and nationally there are as yet comparatively few studies of the evolution and impact of the automobile in Canada especially at the provincial and local levels. The lack of Canadian research on the coming of the automobile makes this dissertation a pioneering effort. Fortunately, the arrival of the motor age created so much controversy that there is a great deal of primary material available. Of particular value to this study was the Busy East of Canada which, due to the interest of its editor C.C. Avard, became an important advocate of good roads and tourism. Other valuable sources, such as government reports and newspapers articles, provided a wealth of information and have been used extensively. The coming of the motor-age to New Brunswick during the first three decades of the twentieth century was an important period of change and growth within the provincial government. The automobile created situations that required provincial involvement in administrative areas that had traditionally been left to local governments. This transition from local control to centralized administration is reflected in the various changes within the public works department, and also in the creation of the New Brunswick Bureau of Information and Tourist Travel and the New Brunswick Provincial Police. ItemIsotopic constraints on timing of deformation and metamorphism in the Thor–Odin dome, Monashee Complex, southeastern British Columbia.(University of New Brunswick, 2003) Kuiper, Yvette Dominique; Williams, Paul; Carr, SharonNew and existing U–Pb and [superscript 40]Ar/[superscript 39]Ar geochronological data, and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope data, are combined with structural and metamorphic data from Thor–Odin, the southern culmination of the Monashee Complex. This leads to a new interpretation of the timing of deformation and metamorphism. Amphibolites in Thor–Odin with hornblende [superscript 40]Ar/[superscript 39]Ar dates between ~75–70 and ~51 Ma experienced more [superscript 18]O- and D-depletion than amphibolites with older dates. The younger dates that were previously interpreted as cooling ages, may have resulted from complete or partial Ar loss in the presence of meteoric fluids that were introduced into the rock during extension. Monazite crystals in pelitic schist, quartzite and orthogneiss, which have U–Pb ages younger than [superscript 40]Ar/[superscript 39]Ar hornblende ages in amphibolite in northwest Thor–Odin, may have grown during extension in the presence of fluids. Titanite, xenotime and zircon dates may be interpreted in the same way. Thus, the U–Pb dates that were previously interpreted as representing peak of metamorphism and the hornblende [superscript 40]Ar/[superscript 39]Ar dates that were previously interpreted as representing cooling ages, may be interpreted as reflecting meteoric fluid penetration of the crust during regional extension. This implies that the age of the thermal peak of metamorphism is older than ~75–70 Ma. Migmatisation in a basement orthogneiss in Thor–Odin occurred at ~1.8 Ga. Dissolution rims are preserved in zircon between ~1.8 Ga domains and 52 Ma overgrowths. Because growth of new zircon (and possibly other U–Pb accessory phases) did not take place, any geological event that occurred during the ~1.8 Ga to 52 Ma time interval is not recorded. Cordilleran deformation and metamorphism may have taken place within that time interval, e.g. in the Middle Jurassic and/or mid- to Late Cretaceous, the time of Cordilleran deformation and metamorphism in the rocks overlying the Monashee Complex. The Joss Mountain orthogneiss, west of the Monashee Complex in the Selkirk Allochthon, is dated at 362 ± 13 Ma. F[subscript 3] folding in pelitic schist at Joss Mountain is constrained between ~73 and ~70 Ma. Existing structural, metamorphic and geochronological data in, and close to, the Shuswap Metamorphic Complex in the southern Canadian Cordillera are shown to be consistent with a channel flow model. ItemLocal and landscape effects of industrial forestry on the reproductive activity of forest songbirds in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada(University of New Brunswick, 2004) Gunn, John Steven; Diamond, A.; Villard, M.-A.In the northern hardwood forest of New Brunswick, industrial forest management affects within-stand vegetation and the landscape structure of the forest mosaic. Understanding the effects of industrial forestry on songbird populations requires the investigation of songbird reproductive success, in addition to abundance, on a landscape scale (i.e., in a mosaic of forest stands). I present a method to efficiently assess the reproductive success of multiple songbird species across a large area (e.g., > 300 ha). The method uses systematic playbacks of a recording of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla) mobbing calls to attract species to an observer. Once birds are attracted to the observer, reproduction-related activities can be recorded to infer successful pairing, hatching, or fledging. Trends in reproductive activity of two focal species obtained using this method were similar to their actual reproductive success as measured using intensive nest monitoring in the same locations. I studied the mobbing response of forest birds at different times of the year and in the presence or absence of potential avian predators. Mean duration of mobbing time was significantly longer when confronted with potential predators, but mobbing intensity was not significantly different. Mobbing group size and overall intensity were greatest early in the breeding season before the initiation of egg laying. I concluded that the variability in avian anti-predator mobbing is based on the proximate (individual safety) and ultimate (safety of offspring) risks of participation. I explored the relationship between reproductive activity and songbird abundance using Spearman correlation coefficients. Reproductive activity and songbird abundance were not significantly correlated in 56% of the comparisons (9 of 16). The lack of a consistent relationship emphasizes the importance of studying fitness parameters in addition to abundance or density. I then used canonical correspondence analysis to assess the relationship between forest management and reproductive activity of eight species of forest birds (Vireonidae, Paridae, and Parulidae) in three study grids of varying silvicultural intensity. I predicted landscape effects would become significant as silvicultural intensity increased. Reproductive activity, local vegetation, and landscape structure data were collected on one 6 x 8 systematic grid and two 8 x 8 systematic grids with stations spaced 250 m apart. Basal area of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) within 100 m of the sample locations were the most significant variables associated with reproductive activity on two of the three study grids (most and least intensively managed). In the third study grid (moderately managed), the amount of tolerant hardwood forest within 1 km of the sampling locations was most significant. The relatively minor effect of landscape structure probably reflects the high proportion of suitable habitat remaining in the study area. Landscape effects on songbird populations may become more important if the proportion of suitable habitat declines. ItemThe life and letters of Prince Edward Island proprietor captain John MacDonald of Glenaladale: an exercise in humanities computing(University of New Brunswick, 2007) Gillis, Roger Christopher; Conrad, MargaretThe introduction of the Internet and the World Wide Web has been one the most significant developments of the last decade. Many historians have approached the Web with reluctance, hesitant to use it to conduct their traditional scholarly tasks of researching, publishing, and teaching history. Communication theorists such as Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan foretold many aspects of the Web's impact in their analyses of past communication media. Applied to the Web, their ideas provide a deeper understanding of what a new medium of communication might mean for scholars in humanities disciplines. Indeed, in the last decade the term “Humanities Computing” has been coined to describe efforts to apply computer methods to humanities data. This thesis explores some of the processes and potential of Humanities Computing as it pertains to the presentation of primary documents on the Web. It takes the form of a case study using the correspondence of eighteenth-century Prince Edward Island land proprietor John MacDonald (1742–1810), a central figure in the conflict between the Island government and the land proprietors. MacDonald took an active interest in his land on the Island and became the voice of landowners making their case to the British crown. Digitized letters drawn from his correspondence will be featured on the Web as part of the Atlantic Canada Virtual Archives, making use of the Web as an alternative to print in presenting, analyzing, and interpreting history. The digitization of the MacDonald letters is an exercise in Humanities Computing through the application of current Web and digital technology to primary source material, which, in turn, demonstrates the benefits of doing research on the Web. Item‘Noble-Hearted Ladies’: Women's Response to the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars, 1898–1905(University of New Brunswick, 2008) Rogers, Kathryn Alexandra; Brown, JeffreyIn 1898 the United States declared war on Spain, aiding the Cuban people in their fight for independence from colonialism. The Spanish-American and Philippine- American wars (1898–1902) ushered in a debate over imperialism and overseas expansion. The Anti-Imperialist League was created in response by a group of prominent men concerned with keeping the country true to its founding, republican principles. Historians have analyzed the men involved, but the voices of women have remained largely unheard. At a time when women were entering public life through reform activism, and concerning themselves with the country's well-being, it is essential that we listen to their voices in order to gain new perspectives on why Americans supported or opposed imperialism. An analysis of material from the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, suffragists and the National American Woman Suffrage Association, and anti-imperialist organizations from 1898–1905 begins to reveal women's response to these wars. It appears for the most part that women's reactions were bound to the various agendas of their organizations. Specific causes like suffrage or temperance required a narrower focus, and many were not in a good position to take up the cause of the Filipinos or publicly oppose the government. Women, like the Anti-Imperialist League, were ultimately more concerned with the effects of imperialism on their own causes and the country, than with supporting the cause of Filipino independence. Women activists were unprepared to respond strongly against imperialism in 1898, but their experiences laid the groundwork for a strong female role in the fight for peace during later conflicts. ItemA reinforcement learning approach to dynamic norm generation(University of New Brunswick, 2010) Hosseini, Hadi; Ulieru, MihaelaThis thesis proposes a two-level learning framework for dynamic norm generation. This framework uses the Bayesian reinforcement learning technique to extract behavioral norms and domain-dependent knowledge in a certain environment and later incorporates them into the learning agents in different settings. Reinforcement learning (RL) and norms are mutually beneficial: norms can be extracted through RL, and RL can be improved by incorporating behavioral norms as prior probability distributions into learning agents. An agent should be confident about its beliefs in order to generalize them and use them in future settings. The confidence level is developed by checking two conditions: how familiar the agent is with the current world and its dynamics (including the norm system), and whether it has converged to an optimal policy. A Bayesian dynamic programming technique is implemented and then compared to other methods such as Q-learning and Dyna. It is shown that Bayesian RL outperforms other techniques in finding the best equilibrium for the exploration-exploitation problem. This thesis demonstrates how an agent can extract behavioral norms and adapt its beliefs based on the domain knowledge it has acquired through the learning process. Scenarios with different percentages of similarity and goals are examined. The experimental results show that the normative agent, having been trained in an initial environment, is able to adjust its beliefs about the dynamics and behavioral norms in a new environment, and thus it converges to the optimal policy more quickly, especially in the early stages of learning. ItemActive tracking with accelerated image processing in hardware(University of New Brunswick, 2010) Bochem, Alexander; Kent, Kenneth; Herpers, RainerThis thesis work presents the implementation and validation of image processing problems in hardware to estimate the performance and precision gain. It compares the implementation for the addressed problem on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a software implementation for a General Purpose Processor (GPP) architecture. For both solutions the implementation costs for their development is an important aspect in the validation. The analysis of the exibility and extendability that can be achieved by a modular implementation for the FPGA design was another major aspect. One addressed problem of this work is the tracking of the detected BLOBs in continuous image material. This has been implemented for the FPGA platform and the GPP architecture. Both approaches have been compared with respect to performance and precision. This research project is motivated by the MI6 project of the Computer Vision research group, which is located at the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences. The intent of the MI6 project is the tracking of a user in an immersive environment. The proposed solution is to attach a light emitting device to the user for tracking the emitted light dots on the projection surface of the immersive environment. Having the center points of those light dots would allow the estimation of the user's position and orientation. One major issue that makes Computer Vision problems computationally expensive is the high amount of data that has to be processed in real-time. Therefore, one major target for the implementation was to get a processing speed of more than 30 frames per second. This would allow the system to realize feedback to the user in a response time which is faster than the human visual perception. One problem that comes with the idea of using a light emitting device to represent the user, is the precision error. Dependent on the resolution of the tracked projection surface of the immersive environment, a pixel might be several cm2 in size. Having a precision error of only a few pixels, might lead to an offset in the estimated user's position of several cm. In this research work the development and validation of a detection and tracking system for BLOBs on a Cyclone II FPGA from Altera has been implemented. The system supports different input devices for the image acquisition and can perform detection and tracking for five to eight BLOBs. A further extension of the design with other input devices or to support the detection is possible with some constraints, which comes with the available resources on the target platform. Additional modules for compressing the image data based on run-length encoding and sub-pixel precision for the computed BLOB center-points have been designed. For the comparison of the FPGA approach for BLOB tracking a similar implementation in software using a multi-threaded approach has been realized. The system can transmit the detection or tracking results on two available communication interfaces, USB and RS232. The analysis of the hardware solution showed a similar precision for the BLOB detection and tracking as the software approach. One problem is the large increase of the allocated resources when extending the system to process more BLOBs. With one of the target platforms, the DE2-70 board from Altera, the BLOB detection could be extended to process up to thirty BLOBs. The implementation of the tracking approach in hardware required much more effort than the software solution. The design of high level problems in hardware for this case are more expensive than the software implementation. The search and match steps in the tracking approach could be realized more efficiently and reliably in software. The additional pre-processing modules for sub-pixel precision and run-length-encoding helped to increase the system's performance and precision. ItemEnhancing the MMD algorithm in multi-core environments(University of New Brunswick, 2011) Schlösser, Michael; Kent, Kenneth; Herpers, RainerThe work done in this thesis enhances the MMD algorithm in multi-core environments. The MMD algorithm, a transformation based algorithm for reversible logic synthesis, is based on the works introduced by Maslov, Miller and Dueck and their original, sequential implementation. It synthesises a formal function specification, provided by a truth table, into a reversible network and is able to perform several optimization steps after the synthesis. This work concentrates on one of these optimization steps, the template matching. This approach is used to reduce the size of the reversible circuit by replacing a number of gates that match a template which implements the same function and uses less gates. Smaller circuits have several benefits since they need less area and are not as costly. The template matching approach introduced in the original works is computationally expensive since it tries to match a library of templates against the given circuit. For each template at each position in the circuit, a number of different combinations have to be calculated during runtime resulting in high execution times, especially for large circuits. In order to make the template matching approach more efficient and usable, it has been reimplemented in order to take advantage of modern multi-core architectures such as the Cell Broadband Engine or a Graphics Processing Unit. For this work, two algorithmically different approaches that try to consider each multi-core architecture’s strengths, have been analyzed and improved. For the analysis these approaches have been cross-implemented on the two target hardware architectures and compared to the original parallel versions. Important metrics for this analysis are the execution time of the algorithm and the result of the minimization with the template matching approach. It could be shown that the algorithmically different approaches produce the same minimization results, independent of the used hardware architecture. However, both cross-implementations also show a significantly higher execution time which makes them practically irrelevant. The results of the first analysis and comparison lead to the decision to enhance only the original parallel approaches. Using the same metrics for successful enhancements as mentioned above, it could be shown that improving the algorithmic concepts and exploiting the capabilities of the hardware lead to better results for the execution time and the minimization results compared to their original implementations. ItemUnhappy differences: English deeds of separation and marital breakdown, c. 1650-1900(University of New Brunswick, 2011) Moore, Tammy L.; Kealey, Linda; Lemire, BeverlyIn eighteenth- and nineteenth- century England, the family was considered the bedrock of society - instability within the family was viewed as a threat to the future of the nation. Because intact marriages were considered so fundamentally important to the prosperity of the state, spouses was expected to fulfill their respective roles as husband and wife even when they both preferred to put an end to their union. For that reason, divorce and judicially sanctioned separation were recognized only in very narrow circumstances - situations in which one party was deemed to have so badly violated his or her obligations under the marriage contract that it was considered unjust to require the other spouse to continue to uphold his or her end of the bargain. Evidence of adultery, cruelty and desertion was considered objective proof that a marriage had failed to fulfill its intended purpose. Those whose marriages broke down for other reasons had no access to judicial separation and divorce, regardless of how unhappy or unstable the union. In spite of prescriptive ideals that relegated husbands and wives to very circumscribed roles within the family, many historians have determined that reality seldom, if ever, reflected the ideal. English couples ordered their households and divided power between them in ways that suited their individual needs and values. My research into the nature and purpose of separation by private contract takes this inquiry one step further, and proves that many couples chose to separate for reasons not recognized by judges and lawmakers. And those who did possess the requisite grounds often rejected the legal process available to them and turned to deeds of separation as a more attractive alternative. My work demonstrates that, not only was separation by deed far more private and less expensive than judicial separation and divorce, but, because the contract represented a private agreement between the parties, arrangements for child custody, support and the division of property could be drafted to conform with the individual circumstances of the family. Often, these arrangements stood in stark contrast to what would have been ordered if the matter had been litigated. ItemImproved ordering of ESOP cubes for Toffoli networks(University of New Brunswick, 2011) Hamza, Zakaria; Dueck, GerhardLogic synthesis deals with the problem of finding a cost-effective realization of a given logic function. This uses several state-of-the-art techniques and involves several tools of mathematical origin. In recent years reversible logic has been suggested to address the power consumption associated with computation. To accomplish such a task, synthesis of reversible logic function is needed. Several new synthesis methods have been developed. In this thesis methods are proposed that improve on a given synthesis method. In particular, interest has been demonstrated in the optimization of this class of circuits which use the particular Exclusive-or Sum of Product (ESOP) terms representation. The advantage this representation format offers is in the ease of mapping the function to a network of Toffoli logic gates. However, this synthesis technique provides non-optimal results which could be improved. This problem has roots in both the representation and mapping processes of synthesis. It is well-known that the order of the terms in the ESOP expression will have a direct effect on the cost of the implementation. The problem of finding the optimal order can be mapped into the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem. Another route of optimization involves reducing the number of terms used to represent the function. This can be achieved by canonical representation of functions. Both of these have proven to offer enhancements over existing synthesis techniques and have been developed in this thesis. Experimental results show that significant improvements can be achieved with the proposed methods. ItemApplying social cognitive theory to the university adjustment process: an examination of student behaviours and the corresponding types of self-efficacy(University of New Brunswick, 2011) Nichols, Laura; Nicki, RichardUniversity students are experiencing more mental health problems than at any other time in the previous three decades. Data obtained from the Center for Disease Control National University Health Risk Behaviour Survey indicated that among the top ten health impediments to students’ academic performance were excessive substance use, sleep difficulties, depression, and Internet/computer use. Based on the available literature, the following student behaviours were chosen for further investigation: depression, Internet addiction, sleep, and affect regulation. In turn, the corresponding types of self-efficacy for each of the behaviours were also selected for investigation. The three goals of the study were: 1) to examine the associations of four domains of self-efficacy (depression, Internet addiction, sleep, and affect regulation) with the corresponding behavioural domains; 2) to examine the prediction of behaviours related to depression, Internet addiction, sleep, and affect regulation on university adjustment; and 3) to examine the role of self-efficacy in the prediction of university adjustment over and above the stated domains of behaviour. First-year undergraduate students (N=164) from the University of New Brunswick-Fredericton completed self-report questionnaire packages. Through multiple regression analyses we found that several types of self-efficacy (i.e., depression, Internet addiction, sleep, and affect regulation) predicted their corresponding behaviours: depression, Internet addiction, sleep, and affect regulation. Furthermore, we found that students who are depressed, experience problematic Internet use, frequently use affect regulation strategies, and have poor sleep quality have a more difficult time adjusting to university. In particular, we found that only Internet addiction uniquely affected university adjustment. Greater insight was gained about the determinants of students’ behaviours and suggestions are made regarding interventions aimed at helping emerging adults successfully transition to university. ItemDivisible load scheduling on multi-level processor trees(University of New Brunswick, 2011) Lord, Mark; Aubanel, EricDivisible Load Theory (DLT) is an effective tool for blueprinting data-intensive computational problems. Heuristic algorithms have been proposed in the past to solve for a DLS (Divisible Load Schedule) with result collection on heterogeneous star networks. However scheduling on heterogeneous multi-level trees with result collection is still an open problem. In this thesis, new heuristic algorithms for scheduling divisible loads on heterogeneous multi-level trees (single- and two-installment) including result collection are presented. Experiments are performed on both random networks and cluster networks. Results show that scheduling using multi-level trees produces lower solution times compared to the traditional star network in the majority of cases, however efficiency of resources in multi-level trees tends to be lower, i.e., more processors were used. Cluster results with multi-level trees are found to outperform the star when there are enough clusters available to provide good overlap of communication and computation. Experiments on random networks with varying levels of heterogeneity of resources show that multi-level trees outperform star networks in the majority of cases. Experiments were conducted comparing schedules with and without latency costs. The results from all schedules where latency was considered had signifiantly lower solution times and higher efficiency of resources. Overall, scheduling on single-installment multi-level trees in either clusters or random networks had the lowest solution times, but the star had highest efficiency of resources. ItemA case study of the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers in New Brunswick, Canada(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Green, Nathan; MacQuarrie, KerryTo investigate the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion, a three-dimensional numerical model of density dependent groundwater flow coupled with solute transport was developed and applied to a coastal sandstone aquifer in New Brunswick, Canada. The model incorporated local topography, bathymetry of the surrounding tidal rivers and Northumberland Strait, stratigraphy from borehole and geophysical investigations, and well field characteristics. Based on predictions of climate change for the area, two scenarios for variations in groundwater recharge and sea level rise, and one for increased pumping, were applied in the model. Simulations were performed using various combinations of the scenarios to quantify the magnitude of the effects of these three factors. The maximum change in total dissolved solids at selected locations within the model during the period of 2011 to 2100 was used as the response in a 2³ factorial analysis. Results indicate that the relative importance of the three factors changes depending on the location within the aquifer. The effect of generally declining recharge was most significant at shallow to intermediate depths (i.e. less than 60 m below sea level), while the effect of increasing pumping rates was most important for a location relatively close to the well field. The effect of sea level rise was found to be significant only at the much deeper inland toe of the transition zone. This study suggests that sea level rise has the least significant effect (of the three factors considered) on future seawater intrusion in shallow to intermediate aquifers similar to the one investigated in this study. These results are supported by other recent studies that indicate the effect of sea level rise on seawater intrusion is negligible when freshwater flow in the aquifer is controlled by constant flux boundaries. ItemBeing well in the digital age: a sociological examination of the interplay between the internet and personal well-being in New Brunswick(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Miltsov, Alexandre; Rideout, VandaThe Internet affects, both positively and negatively, the various aspects of personal wellbeing, and given its popularity and pervasiveness, it has become important to examine its effects and to study the implications. This thesis articulates a differentiated approach to the study of the relationship between the Internet and personal well-being. A mixed methods research design helps reveal a complex relationship between Internet use and the different dimensions of personal well-being in New Brunswick. The results indicate that heavy Internet use and its use for entertainment are associated with lower levels of personal well-being, and such socio-demographic factors as income, gender, and age introduce additional dimensions to this association. Because this thesis integrates qualitative and quantitative methods with a nuanced approach to the study of lnternet use, it contributes towards the formulation of new approaches to the methodological framework for examining the relationship between the Internet and well-being. ItemSocioeconomic analysis of spruce budworm and forest tent caterpillar outbreaks and control in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Chang, Wei-Yew; Lantz, Van; MacLean, DavidForest pest outbreaks can have severe impacts on ecosystem dynamics by causing extensive tree mortality and growth loss on forest land. The ecological impacts caused by forest pest outbreaks could have serious social and economic implications on regions that depend heavily on forests. The analysis conducted in this dissertation represents a comprehensive approach of assessing several fundamental social and economic issues related to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana; SBW) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria; FTC) management in the provinces of New Brunswick (NB) and Saskatchewan (SK). Contributions include: (i) conducting a large-scale, multi-regional, multi-pest analysis of public attitudes about SBW and FTC outbreaks and control options using a public opinion mail survey; (ii) estimating the potential social benefits of controlling future SBW and FTC outbreaks using the contingent valuation method; (iii) evaluating the economic efficiency and cost effectiveness of SBW control alternatives by incorporating results from a contingent valuation method and a biophysical impacts model (i.e., Spruce Budworm Decision Support System) into a benefit-cost analysis framework that considers both market and non-market values; and (iv) assessing long-term economic impacts of SBW outbreaks and control by coupling a biophysical impacts model with a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. Important findings in this dissertation are as follows: (i) there is a high public support (at over 80%) of controlling future SBW and FTC outbreaks with biological control in NB and SK; (ii) controlling future SBW and FTC outbreaks could generate substantial social benefits in NB ($ ranging from $7.9-20.8 million per year) and SK (ranging from $11.7-32.4 million); (iii) the most cost-effective and economically efficient level of SBW control in NB is obtained by protecting 10-20% of the most susceptible forest areas; and (iv) a future SBW outbreak would have severe impacts on the NB economy (in the order of $3.3-4.7 billion in present-value output terms), however, the negative impacts could be significantly mitigated through forest pest management. The results of this dissertation have significantly enhanced understanding of fundamental socio-economic issues of SBW and FTC outbreaks and control and will help forest policy makers achieve more informed, publically acceptable, and economically efficient forest pest management strategies. ItemThe sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa: its absorption efficiency, potential application in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and a review of its culture potential(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Nelson, Emily Joan; MacDonald, Bruce; Robinson, ShawnThe sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa was examined as a potential integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) organic extractive species by determining the efficiency at which they could absorb organics (absorption efficiency) in the laboratory and field. C. frondosa absorbed approximately 70% of organic material when feeding in the natural environment, with the potential to increase this efficiency when exposed to higher quality material. C. frondosa was also found to capture and consume aquaculture waste, and therefore has the potential to reduce organic loading at aquaculture sites. Currently C. frondosa is not being cultured. Utilizing the literature available, the marketability, biology, production cost, hatchery potential, grow-out technology, and alternate use within IMTA were explored. This sea cucumber species is marketable, highly abundant, and its reproductive biology is well researched. It appears to be best-suited for ocean culture. However, its slow growth rate and low value could present challenges and may limit aquaculture production. ItemExploring mothers' perception of daughters' choice of sport(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Dickson, Nora E.; Shannon, Charlene; Scott, DavidDespite increasing opportunities for girls in sport, participation rates in traditional sports such as figure skating are still disproportionately higher than for participation in non-traditional sports such as ice hockey. Eccles' (1984) theoretical expectancy-value model has been applied in the sports area to explain gender differences in socialization and understanding parent influences (Eccles & Harold, 1991). The model suggests that mothers will play an influential role in their daughters' involvement in sport and a mother's perceptions towards gender-role stereotypes will be a factor in determining their daughters' traditional or nontraditional sport choice. The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of mothers in the socialization process of girls into the traditional female sport of figure skating and the historically male dominated sport of hockey. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 mothers (10 hockey; 10 figure skating) in New Brunswick. Transcribed interviews were coded and themes were developed related to mothers' roles. Mothers were responsive to daughters' expressed interest that was motivated by another source (e.g., father, sibling), served as a catalyst to their daughters' initial involvement, and facilitated daughters' participation in their chosen sport. Regarding the influence of gender in sport, mothers shared their thoughts on daughters and females fitting into and making sense in a changing society and sport culture. ItemBeeswax emulsions and microcapsules for hydrophobic modification of cellulose fiber networks(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Xu, Ji Xiao; Xiao, HuiningVarious beeswax emulsions and beeswax-based microcapsules were developed in an attempt to reduce the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of cellulose fiber networks of paper products which are of great importance for green-based packaging materials. Four different systems were established and investigated: the block polymer (PE-b-PEG) stabilized beeswax emulsion, cationic starch-stabilized beeswax emulsion, nanobentonite-stabilized beeswax emulsion, and starch microcapsules loaded with beeswax. Each emulsion system or latex was applied to paper handsheets via wet-end addition, surface coating or the combination of wet-end addition and coating. The resulting paper products were well characterized with particular attention paid to WVTR measurements. According to the ASTM E-96, a wet-cup method was developed to quantify the WVTR values at the condition of 38°C and 90% relative humidity (RH). The results indicated that the hydrophobic modification of fiber networks increased the hydrophobicity of paper substantially and reduced the WVTR by 70%. The combination of wet-end addition and surface coating creates the synergy in lowering WVTR. ItemEnduring effects of methylphenidate: the role played by route of drug administration(University of New Brunswick, 2012) Bigney, Erin E.; Taukulis, HaraldMethylphenidate (MPD; Ritalin®) is a psychostimulant used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In rodents, chronic treatment with MPD via intraperitoneal (IP) injection during adolescence results in both neurochemical and behavioral indices of depression during adulthood; however, in clinical practice, MPD is administered orally. Drug effects can vary widely depending on mode of administration, and therefore it is necessary to determine if oral treatment with MPD also enhances modeled depression. Experiment 1 investigated blood plasma levels of MPD following both oral and IP administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The quantitative plasma results demonstrated that 2 mg/kg IP and 5 mg/kg oral MPD resulted in equivalent and clinically relevant levels of systemic MPD. Experiment 2 investigated the enduring effects of both IP and oral chronic MPD on two of the hallmark symptoms of depression (anhedonia and behavioral despair) and a measure of anxiety. The current study showed that in the sucrose preference test and the forced swim test (measures of anhedonia and behavioral despair, respectively), MPD resulted in more depressive-like behaviours, independent of mode of administration. MPD effects on anxiety (as measured by the elevated-plus maze) were dependent upon mode of administration. IP administration of MPD resulted in significantly higher levels of anxiety compared to oral administration of MPD. The results of this study indicated that different mode of administrations can alter research findings, resulting in vastly different conclusions. This finding is important given the penchant of preclinical studies for using IP administration, regardless of the mode of administration used clinically. The current study's finding that both oral and IP chronic MPD treatment during adolescences resulted in an increase in symptoms of behavioral despair in adulthood highlights the need for further research to improve our understanding of the potentially enduring effects resulting from early-life MPD exposure.