New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training Publications

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    Apprenticeship programs in the Atlantic provinces: Program characteristics, apprentice mobility and earnings
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2017) Emery, Herb; McDonald, Ted; Balcom, Andrew
    This report presents descriptive statistics on various dimensions of apprenticeship training in the Atlantic provinces. The report is based on statistics generated by Statistics Canada from a complex individual-level longitudinal dataset linking data from multiple sources including the Registered Apprenticeship Information System, T1 tax files and T4 statements of earnings over the period 2008-2013 inclusive. The longitudinal nature of the data allow mobility to be evaluated, including comparisons of province of study, province of residence and province of work before, during and after apprenticeship training. The report considers three dimensions of apprenticeships: characteristics of participants including demographic characteristics, field of study, and status in the program; mobility of apprentices, comparing province of study with province of employment and province of residence while enrolled and after the program is either completed or discontinued; and earnings of those in the program and those who completed or discontinued the program, with a focus on differences in earnings for movers compared to non-movers. For all three dimensions, results are compared across individuals enrolled in apprenticeship programs in each of the Atlantic provinces.
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    Summary Report: Apprenticeship programs in the Atlantic provinces: Program characteristics, apprentice mobility and earnings
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2017) Emery, Herb; McDonald, Ted; Balcom, Andrew
    This report presents descriptive statistics on various dimensions of apprenticeship training in the Atlantic provinces. The report is based on statistics generated by Statistics Canada from a complex individual-level longitudinal dataset linking data from multiple sources including the Registered Apprenticeship Information System, T1 tax files and T4 statements of earnings over the period 2008-2013 inclusive. The longitudinal nature of the data allow mobility to be evaluated, including comparisons of province of study, province of residence and province of work before, during and after apprenticeship training. The report considers three dimensions of apprenticeships: characteristics of participants including demographic characteristics, field of study, and status in the program; mobility of apprentices, comparing province of study with province of employment and province of residence while enrolled and after the program is either completed or discontinued; and earnings of those in the program and those who completed or discontinued the program, with a focus on differences in earnings for movers compared to non-movers. For all three dimensions, results are compared across individuals enrolled in apprenticeship programs in each of the Atlantic provinces.
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    A profile of employment across industries in New Brunswick: 1996-2019
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2020) Boco, Eton; Leonard, Philip; McDonald, Ted
    This report examines employment and industry changes in New Brunswick (NB) over a 20-year period (1996 to 2016) using data from the Canadian Census. It also examines changes over a ten-year period (2009 to 2019) using data from the Labour Force Survey. Results are stratified by CMA/CA1 and by industry using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).
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    Essential requirements for the governance and management of data trusts, data repositories, and other data collaborations
    (Swansea University, 2023-09-20) Paprica, P. Alison; Crichlow, Monique; Curtis Maillet, Donna; Kesselring, Sarah; Pow, Conrad; Scarnecchia, Thomas P.; Schull, Michael J.; Cartagena, Rosario G.; Cumyn, Annabelle; Dostmohammad, Salman; Elliston, Keith O.; Griever, Michelle; Hawn Nelson, Amy; Hill, Sean L.; Isaranuwatcha, Wanrudee; Loukipoudis, Evgueni; McDonald, James Ted; McLaughlin, John R.; Rabinowitz, Alan; Razak, Fahad; Verhulst, Stefaan G.; Verma, Amol A.; Victor, J. Charles; Young, Andrew; Yu, Joanna; McGrail, Kimberlyn
    Introduction Around the world, many organisations are working on ways to increase the use, sharing, and reuse of person-level data for research, evaluation, planning, and innovation while ensuring that data are secure and privacy is protected. As a contribution to broader efforts to improve data governance and management, in 2020 members of our team published 12 minimum specification essential requirements (min specs) to provide practical guidance for organisations establishing or operating data trusts and other forms of data infrastructure. Approach and Aims We convened an international team, consisting mostly of participants from Canada and the United States of America, to test and refine the original 12 min specs. Twenty-three (23) data-focused organisations and initiatives recorded the various ways they address the min specs. Sub-teams analysed the results, used the findings to make improvements to the min specs, and identified materials to support organisations/initiatives in addressing the min specs. Results Analyses and discussion led to an updated set of 15 min specs covering five categories: one min spec for Legal, five for Governance, four for Management, two for Data Users, and three for Stakeholder & Public Engagement. Multiple changes were made to make the min specs language more technically complete and precise. The updated set of 15 min specs has been integrated into a Canadian national standard that, to our knowledge, is the first to include requirements for public engagement and Indigenous Data Sovereignty. Conclusions The testing and refinement of the min specs led to significant additions and improvements. The min specs helped the 23 organisations/initiatives involved in this project communicate and compare how they achieve responsible and trustworthy data governance and management. By extension, the min specs, and the Canadian national standard based on them, are likely to be useful for other data-focused organisations and initiatives.
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    Double Disparity of Sexual Minority Status and Rurality in Cardiometabolic Hospitalization Risk: A Secondary Analysis Using Linked Population-Based Data
    (MDPI, 2023-10-30) Gupta, Neeru; Cookson, Samuel R.
    Studies have shown separately that sexual minority populations generally experience poorer chronic health outcomes compared with those who identify as heterosexual, as do rural populations compared with urban dwellers. This Canadian national observational study explored healthcare patterns at the little-understood intersections of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity with residence in rural and remote communities, beyond chronic disease status. The secondary analysis applied logistic regressions on multiple linked datasets from representative health surveys, administrative hospital records, and a geocoded index of community remoteness to examine differences in the risk of potentially avoidable cardiometabolic-related hospitalization among adults of working age. Among those with an underlying cardiometabolic condition and residing in more rural and remote communities, a significantly higher hospitalization risk was found for LGB-identified persons compared with their heterosexual peers (odds ratio: 4.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–11.7), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, and primary healthcare access. In models stratified by sex, the association remained significant among gay and bisexual men (5.6; CI: 1.3–24.4) but not among lesbian and bisexual women (3.5; CI: 0.9–13.6). More research is needed leveraging linkable datasets to better understand the complex and multiplicative influences of sexual minority status and rurality on cardiometabolic health to inform equity-enhancing preventive healthcare interventions.
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    Comparison of socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 testing and positivity in Canada: A multi-provincial analysis
    (PLOS, 2023-08-23) Antonova, Lilia; Somayaji, Chandy; Cameron, Jillian; Sirski, Monica; Sundaram, Maria E.; McDonald, James Ted; Mishra, Sharmistha; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Katz, Alan; Baral, Stefan; Caulley, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew; Corsten, Martin; Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie
    The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been more pronounced for socially disadvantaged populations. We sought to determine how access to SARS-CoV-2 testing and the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 were associated with demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and social determinants of health (SDH) in three Canadian provinces.
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    Rapport récapitulatif: Caractérisation de la population francophone de la région du Grand Saint John (2015- 2020)
    (l’Institut de recherche, de données et de formation du Nouveau-Brunswick, 2023-02) McDonald, Ted; Balzer, Andy; Cameron, Jillian; Mokhtar, Rawia
    Le bilinguisme rend la province du Nouveau-Brunswick (N.-B.) unique au sein du Canada, de par sa forte diversité linguistique et son incroyable richesse culturelle. Cependant, comme le Nouveau-Brunswick est la seule province officiellement bilingue du Canada, certains segments de sa population sont confrontés à des obstacles linguistiques. Par exemple, il n’y a que peu d’information sur la taille de la communauté francophone dont les membres préféreraient un service en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone. Sans cette information, il est, toutefois, impossible de représenter précisément la demande potentielle de services sociaux et de soins de santé en français et de trouver le moyen de répondre à cette demande le plus efficacement possible. Dans ce rapport, nous tentons de remédier aux obstacles linguistiques, particulièrement dans la région du Grand Saint John1 en élaborant un profil de la population francophone de cette région. Pour combler cette lacune au niveau des connaissances et éclairer les discussions sur les obstacles linguistiques au N.-B., les auteurs de ce rapport exposent une analyse de la mesure dans laquelle les services de santé, entre autres services d’aide, peuvent être offerts en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone de la province. Parmi les aspects visés, mentionnons l’état de santé des résidents, l’usage des services de santé, la réception des services sociaux, la composition des ménages et le profil socio-économique du quartier. Nous examinons comment ces aspects ont changé au fil du temps et nous les comparons à celles des Néo-Brunswickois francophones et anglophones qui vivent dans une communauté urbaine majoritairement francophone et des résidents anglophones qui vivent dans la RGSJ, à Moncton et dans le reste du N.-B.2 Étant donné qu’à ce jour, la seule information sur la préférence linguistique que l’on trouve dans les données administratives du N.-B. est tirée des dossiers du système de l’assurance-maladie de la province, il y a des raisons de croire que l’on sous-estime peut-être la préférence linguistique réelle concernant les services de santé. C’est pourquoi nous envisageons des ajustements en fonction des résultats sur les connaissances linguistiques régionales indiqués dans le recensement canadien de 2016.
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    Caractérisation de la population francophone de la région du Grand Saint John (2015- 2020)
    (l’Institut de recherche, de données et de formation du Nouveau-Brunswick de l’Université du Nouveau-Brunswick, 2023-02) McDonald, Ted; Balzer, Andy; Cameron, Jillian; Mokhtar, Rawia
    Le bilinguisme rend la province du Nouveau-Brunswick (N.-B.) unique au sein du Canada, de par sa forte diversité linguistique et son incroyable richesse culturelle. Cependant, comme le Nouveau-Brunswick est la seule province officiellement bilingue du Canada, certains segments de sa population sont confrontés à des obstacles linguistiques. Par exemple, il n’y a que peu d’information sur la taille de la communauté francophone dont les membres préféreraient un service en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone. Sans cette information, il est, toutefois, impossible de représenter précisément la demande potentielle de services sociaux et de soins de santé en français et de trouver le moyen de répondre à cette demande le plus efficacement possible. Dans ce rapport, nous tentons de remédier aux obstacles linguistiques, particulièrement dans la région du Grand Saint John1 en élaborant un profil de la population francophone de cette région. Pour combler cette lacune au niveau des connaissances et éclairer les discussions sur les obstacles linguistiques au N.-B., les auteurs de ce rapport exposent une analyse de la mesure dans laquelle les services de santé, entre autres services d’aide, peuvent être offerts en français dans les régions à majorité anglophone de la province. Parmi les aspects visés, mentionnons l’état de santé des résidents, l’usage des services de santé, la réception des services sociaux, la composition des ménages et le profil socio-économique du quartier. Nous examinons comment ces aspects ont changé au fil du temps et nous les comparons à celles des Néo-Brunswickois francophones et anglophones qui vivent dans une communauté urbaine majoritairement francophone et des résidents anglophones qui vivent dans la RGSJ, à Moncton et dans le reste du N.-B.2 Étant donné qu’à ce jour, la seule information sur la préférence linguistique que l’on trouve dans les données administratives du N.-B. est tirée des dossiers du système de l’assurance-maladie de la province, il y a des raisons de croire que l’on sous-estime peut-être la préférence linguistique réelle concernant les services de santé. C’est pourquoi nous envisageons des ajustements en fonction des résultats sur les connaissances linguistiques régionales indiqués dans le recensement canadien de 2016.
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    Summary Report: Characterizing the Francophone population in Greater Saint John (2015- 2020)
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2023-02) McDonald, Ted; Balzer, Andy; Cameron, Jillian; Mokhtar, Rawia
    Bilingualism makes the province of New Brunswick (NB) unique within Canada, bringing with it a high level of linguistic diversity and cultural enrichment. However, as Canada’s only officially bilingual province, NB also faces issues of language barriers affecting segments of its population. For instance, there is limited information about the size of the Francophone community that would prefer service in French in majority Anglophone areas. Without this information, it is impossible to accurately represent the potential demand for French-language health and social services and how to meet that demand most efficiently. In this report, we attempt to address language barriers specifically in the Greater Saint John (GSJ) region by constructing a population profile of the Francophone population of GSJ. To fill this knowledge gap and to inform discussions of language barriers in NB, this report supports an analysis of the extent to which health and other support services might be provided in French in majority-Anglophone areas of the province. Measures of interest include residents’ health status, health service use, social services receipt, household composition, and neighbourhood socioeconomic profile. We consider how these measures have changed over time and how they compare for Francophone and Anglophone New Brunswickers living in urban majority-French communities, as well as Anglophone residents living GSJ, Moncton, and the Rest of NB. To date, the only information on language preference in NB administrative data is based on records in the province’s Medicare system, and there is reason to believe this might underestimate actual language preference for health services. As such, we consider adjustments based on measures of area-level language fluency as reported in the 2016 Canadian Census.
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    Characterizing The Francophone Population in Greater Saint John (2015-2020)
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2023-02) McDonald, Ted; Balzer, Andy; Cameron, Jillian; Mokhtar, Rawia
    Bilingualism makes the province of New Brunswick (NB) unique within Canada, bringing with it a high level of linguistic diversity and cultural enrichment. However, as Canada’s only officially bilingual province, NB also faces issues of language barriers affecting segments of its population. For instance, there is limited information about the size of the Francophone community that would prefer service in French in majority Anglophone areas. Without this information, it is impossible to accurately represent the potential demand for French-language health and social services and how to meet that demand most efficiently. In this report, we attempt to address language barriers specifically in the Greater Saint John (GSJ) region by constructing a population profile of the Francophone population of GSJ. To fill this knowledge gap and to inform discussions of language barriers in NB, this report supports an analysis of the extent to which health and other support services might be provided in French in majority-Anglophone areas of the province. Measures of interest include residents’ health status, health service use, social services receipt, household composition, and neighbourhood socioeconomic profile. We consider how these measures have changed over time and how they compare for Francophone and Anglophone New Brunswickers living in urban majority-French communities, as well as Anglophone residents living GSJ, Moncton, and the Rest of NB. To date, the only information on language preference in NB administrative data is based on records in the province’s Medicare system, and there is reason to believe this might underestimate actual language preference for health services. As such, we consider adjustments based on measures of area-level language fluency as reported in the 2016 Canadian Census.
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    Summary Report: Teacher recruitment and retention in New Brunswick
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2024) McDonald, Ted; Miah, Pablo
    This study investigates the provincial and occupational retention rates of teachers in New Brunswick (NB). Schools and school districts in NB are faced with notable demographic shifts and a rising number of retirements among senior teachers. They are also challenged with the dual responsibility of upholding teaching standards and the ongoing recruitment and retention of their teachers. To help support the province’s schools and districts in these goals, it is imperative to understand trends in teacher recruitment and retention in the province and to identify factors that may be associated with decisions to transition out of teaching. Using a unique linked administrative data set that combines individual-level Teacher Payroll Data, Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Graduate Data and Citizen Data (Medicare Registry), we address three questions on different dimensions of teacher transitions: 1. At what rate do Bachelor of Education (BEd) graduates from NB post-secondary institutions live and work as teachers in NB? 2. What affects a teacher’s decision to exit from employment in the public school system (including both retirement and pre-retirement exit)? 3. Do teachers that leave the NB public school system stay in NB or leave the province?
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    Teacher Recruitment and Retention in New Brunswick
    (New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training, 2024) McDonald, Ted; Miah, Pablo
    This study investigates the provincial and occupational retention rates of teachers in New Brunswick (NB). Schools and school districts in NB are faced with notable demographic shifts and a rising number of retirements among senior teachers. They are also challenged with the dual responsibility of upholding teaching standards and the ongoing recruitment and retention of their teachers. To help support the province’s schools and districts in these goals, it is imperative to understand trends in teacher recruitment and retention in the province and to identify factors that may be associated with decisions to transition out of teaching. Using a unique linked administrative data set that combines individual-level Teacher Payroll Data, Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Graduate Data and Citizen Data (Medicare Registry), we address three questions on different dimensions of teacher transitions: 1. At what rate do Bachelor of Education (BEd) graduates from NB post-secondary institutions live and work as teachers in NB? 2. What affects a teacher’s decision to exit from employment in the public school system (including both retirement and pre-retirement exit)? 3. Do teachers that leave the NB public school system stay in NB or leave the province?