ItemProblem Uncertainty, Institutional Insularity, and Modes of Learning in Canadian Provincial Hydraulic Fracturing Regulation(Wiley, 2020-09-28) Millar, HeatherThis study uses policy learning frameworks to explain variation in processes of hydraulic fracturing regulatory development in Canadian provinces. Using a cross-case comparison of British Columbia and Nova Scotia, the article demonstrates that differences in problem uncertainty and institutional insularity in each province determined modes of technical, social, and political learning in each province. In British Columbia elected officials framed LNG as a safe, clean energy source generating economic benefits. These frames made it difficult for anti-fracking advocates to increase the salience of environmental risks and scientific uncertainty. Low problem uncertainty and high institutional insularity fostered processes of technical learning within the BC Oil and Gas Commission focused on single-issue regulations. In Nova Scotia, an external review provided an ad hoc institutional venue through which environmental advocates, residents, and experts could increase the salience of scientific uncertainty and dread environmental risks. These conditions fostered collective processes of social learning among anti-fracking advocates and political learning among elected officials, resulting in a ban. ItemSurface Versus Untargeted Intramuscular EMG Based Classification of Simultaneous and Dynamically Changing Movements(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2013) Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Rosenvang, Jakob Celander; Horup, Ronnie; Jensen, Winnie; Farina, Dario; Englehart, Kevin B.The pattern recognition-based myoelectric control scheme is in the process of being implemented in clinical settings, but it has been mainly tested on sequential and steady state data. This paper investigates the ability of pattern recognition to resolve movements that are simultaneous and dynamically changing and compares the use of surface and untargeted intramuscular EMG signals for this purpose. Ten able-bodied subjects participated in the study. Both EMG types were recorded concurrently from the right forearm. The subjects were instructed to track dynamic contraction profiles using single and combined degrees of freedom in three trials. During trials one and two, the amplitude and the frequency of the profile were kept constant (nonmodulated data), and during trial three, the two parameters were modulated (modulated data). The results showed that the performance was up to 93% for nonmodulated tasks, but highly depended on the nature of the data used. Surface and untargeted intramuscular EMG had equal performance for data of similar nature (nonmodulated), but the performance of intramuscular EMG decreased, compared to surface, when tested on modulated data. However, the results of intramuscular recordings obtained in this study are promising for future use of implantable electrodes, because, besides the value added in terms of potential chronic implantation, the performance is theoretically the same as for surface EMG provided that enough information is captured in the recordings. Nevertheless, care should be taken when training the system since data obtained from selective recordings probably need more training data to generalize to new signals. ItemDo Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?(Public Library of Science, 2015) Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin; Shu-Dong ZhangControl of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05). Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53–1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user’s error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks. ItemHigh-density force myography: A possible alternative for upper-limb prosthetic control(Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, 2016) Radmand, Ashkan; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, KevinSeveral multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG) for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG)-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%–11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%. ItemReal-time, simultaneous myoelectric control using a convolutional neural network(Public Library of Science, 2018-09-13) Ameri, Ali; Akhaee, Mohammad Ali; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, Kevin; Ginestra BianconiThe evolution of deep learning techniques has been transformative as they have allowed complex mappings to be trained between control inputs and outputs without the need for feature engineering. In this work, a myoelectric control system based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) is proposed as a possible alternative to traditional approaches that rely on specifically designed features. This CNN-based system is validated using a real-time Fitts’ law style target acquisition test requiring single and combined wrist motions. The performance of the proposed system is then compared to that of a standard support vector machine (SVM) based myoelectric system using a set of time-domain features. Despite the prevalence and demonstrated performance of these well-known features, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found between the two methods for any of the computed control metrics. This demonstrates the potential for automated learning approaches to extract complex and rich information from stochastic biological signals. This first evaluation of the usability of a CNN in a real-time myoelectric control environment provides a basis for further exploration. ItemConventional analysis of trial-by-trial adaptation is biased: Empirical and theoretical support using a Bayesian estimator(Public Library of Science, 2018-12) Blustein, Daniel; Shehata, Ahmed; Englehart, Kevin; Sensinger, Jonathon; Maurice A. SmithResearch on human motor adaptation has often focused on how people adapt to self-generated or externally-influenced errors. Trial-by-trial adaptation is a person’s response to self-generated errors. Externally-influenced errors applied as catch-trial perturbations are used to calculate a person’s perturbation adaptation rate. Although these adaptation rates are sometimes compared to one another, we show through simulation and empirical data that the two metrics are distinct. We demonstrate that the trial-by-trial adaptation rate, often calculated as a coefficient in a linear regression, is biased under typical conditions. We tested 12 able-bodied subjects moving a cursor on a screen using a computer mouse. Statistically different adaptation rates arise when sub-sets of trials from different phases of learning are analyzed from within a sequence of movement results. We propose a new approach to identify when a person’s learning has stabilized in order to identify steady-state movement trials from which to calculate a more reliable trial-by-trial adaptation rate. Using a Bayesian model of human movement, we show that this analysis approach is more consistent and provides a more confident estimate than alternative approaches. Constraining analyses to steady-state conditions will allow researchers to better decouple the multiple concurrent learning processes that occur while a person makes goal-directed movements. Streamlining this analysis may help broaden the impact of motor adaptation studies, perhaps even enhancing their clinical usefulness. ItemMultiday Evaluation of Techniques for EMG-Based Classification of Hand Motions(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019-07) Waris, Asim; Niazi, Imran K.; Jamil, Mohsin; Englehart, Kevin; Jensen, Winnie; Kamavuako, Ernest NlanduCurrently, most of the adopted myoelectric schemes for upper limb prostheses do not provide users with intuitive control. Higher accuracies have been reported using different classification algorithms but investigation on the reliability over time for these methods is very limited. In this study, we compared for the first time the longitudinal performance of selected state-of-the-art techniques for electromyography (EMG) based classification of hand motions. Experiments were conducted on ten able-bodied and six transradial amputees for seven continuous days. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and decision trees (TREE) were compared. Comparative analysis showed that the ANN attained highest classification accuracy followed by LDA. Three-way repeated ANOVA test showed a significant difference (P <; 0.001) between EMG types (surface, intramuscular, and combined), days (1-7), classifiers, and their interactions. Performance on the last day was significantly better (P <; 0.05) than the first day for all classifiers and EMG types. Within-day, classification error (WCE) across all subject and days in ANN was: surface (9.12 ± 7.38%), intramuscular (11.86 ± 7.84%), and combined (6.11 ± 7.46%). The between-day analysis in a leave-one-day-out fashion showed that the ANN was the optimal classifier surface (21.88 ± 4.14%), intramuscular (29.33 ± 2.58%), and combined (14.37 ± 3.10%). Results indicate that within day performances of classifiers may be similar but over time, it may lead to a substantially different outcome. Furthermore, training ANN on multiple days might allow capturing time-dependent variability in the EMG signals and thus minimizing the necessity for daily system recalibration. ItemDetermination of optimum threshold values for EMG time domain features; a multi-dataset investigation(IOP Publishing, 2016) Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Scheme, Erik Justin; Englehart, Kevin BrianObjective. For over two decades, Hudgins' set of time domain features have extensively been applied for classification of hand motions. The calculation of slope sign change and zero crossing features uses a threshold to attenuate the effect of background noise. However, there is no consensus on the optimum threshold value. In this study, we investigate for the first time the effect of threshold selection on the feature space and classification accuracy using multiple datasets. Approach. In the first part, four datasets were used, and classification error (CE), separability index, scatter matrix separability criterion, and cardinality of the features were used as performance measures. In the second part, data from eight classes were collected during two separate days with two days in between from eight able-bodied subjects. The threshold for each feature was computed as a factor (R = 0:0.01:4) times the average root mean square of data during rest. For each day, we quantified CE for R = 0 (CEr0) and minimum error (CEbest). Moreover, a cross day threshold validation was applied where, for example, CE of day two (CEodt) is computed based on optimum threshold from day one and vice versa. Finally, we quantified the effect of the threshold when using training data from one day and test data of the other. Main results. All performance metrics generally degraded with increasing threshold values. On average, CEbest (5.26 ± 2.42%) was significantly better than CEr0 (7.51 ± 2.41%, P = 0.018), and CEodt (7.50 ± 2.50%, P = 0.021). During the two-fold validation between days, CEbest performed similar to CEr0. Interestingly, when using the threshold values optimized per subject from day one and day two respectively, on the cross-days classification, the performance decreased. Significance. We have demonstrated that threshold value has a strong impact on the feature space and that an optimum threshold can be quantified. However, this optimum threshold is highly data and subject driven and thus do not generalize well. There is a strong evidence that R = 0 provides a good trade-off between system performance and generalization. These findings are important for practical use of pattern recognition based myoelectric control. ItemReturn to work after occupational injury and upper limb amputation(Oxford University Press, 2017) Craig, M.; Hill, W.; Englehart, K.; Adisesh, A.Background Upper limb injury can result in loss of function, and time away from work. However, the particular occupational consequences of upper limb amputation (ULA) are not well characterized. Aims To describe the characteristics of workers experiencing occupational ULA and their work outcomes. Methods In January 2015, we reviewed the Workers’ Rehabilitation Centre records of adults with ULAs in New Brunswick, Canada, going back to 1993. Results We examined 49 records. Overall, 82% of patients made an eventual return to work, returning after a median of 172 days (range 20–1645 days). Younger patients were more likely to return to work and did so sooner. Patients returning to work did not seem to change job type, as coded through the Canadian National Occupational Classification. Conclusions The majority (82%) of workers in our sample returned to work and to similar job types. In addition, age was a protective factor for return to work. Patients and occupational health clinicians should be reassured with regard to this aspect of their rehabilitation. ItemThe effect of time on EMG classification of hand motions in able-bodied and transradial amputees(Elsevier, 2018-06) Waris, Asim; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jamil, Mohsin; Gilani, Omer; Englehart, Kevin; Jensen, Winnie; Shafique, Muhammad; Kamavuako, Ernest NlanduWhile several studies have demonstrated the short-term performance of pattern recognition systems, long-term investigations are very limited. In this study, we investigated changes in classification performance over time. Ten able-bodied individuals and six amputees took part in this study. EMG signals were recorded concurrently from surface and intramuscular electrodes, with intramuscular electrodes kept in the muscles for seven days. Seven hand motions were evaluated daily using linear discriminant analysis and the classification error quantified within (WCE) and between (BCE) days. BCE was computed for all possible combinations between the days. For all subjects, surface sEMG (7.2 ± 7.6%), iEMG (11.9 ± 9.1%) and cEMG (4.6 ± 4.8%) were significantly different (P < 0.001) from each other. A regression between WCE and days (1–7) was on average not significant implying that performance may be considered similar within each day. Regression between BCE and time difference (Df) in days was significant. The slope between BCE and Df (0–6) was significantly different from zero for sEMG (R2 = 89%) and iEMG (R2 = 95%) in amputees. Results indicate that performance continuously degrades as the time difference between training and testing day increases. Furthermore, for iEMG, performance in amputees was directly proportional to the size of the residual limb. ItemA proportional control scheme for high density force myography(IOP Publishing, 2018-08) Belyea, Alexander T.; Englehart, Kevin B.; Scheme, Erik J.Objective. Force myography (FMG) has been shown to be a potentially higher accuracy alternative to electromyography for pattern recognition based prosthetic control. Classification accuracy, however, is just one factor that affects the usability of a control system. Others, like the ability to start and stop, to coordinate dynamic movements, and to control the velocity of the device through some proportional control scheme can be of equal importance. To impart effective fine control using FMG-based pattern recognition, it is important that a method of controlling the velocity of each motion be developed. Methods. In this work force myography data were collected from 14 able bodied participants and one amputee participant as they performed a set of wrist and hand motions. The offline proportional control performance of a standard mean signal amplitude approach and a proposed regression-based alternative was compared. The impact of providing feedback during training, as well as the use of constrained or unconstrained hand and wrist contractions, were also evaluated. Results. It is shown that the commonly used mean of rectified channel amplitudes approach commonly employed with electromyography does not translate to force myography. The proposed class-based regression proportional control approach is shown significantly outperform this standard approach (ρ < 0.001), yielding a R2 correlation coefficients of 0.837 and 0.830 for constrained and unconstrained forearm contractions, respectively for able bodied participants. No significant difference (ρ = 0.693) was found in R2 performance when feedback was provided during training or not. The amputee subject achieved a classification accuracy of 83.4% ± 3.47% demonstrating the ability to distinguish contractions well with FMG. In proportional control the amputee participant achieved an R2 of of 0.375 for regression based proportional control during unconstrained contractions. This is lower than the unconstrained case for able-bodied subjects for this particular amputee, possibly due to difficultly in visualizing contraction level modulation without feedback. This may be remedied in the use of a prosthetic limb that would provide real-time feedback in the form of device speed. Conclusion. A novel class-specific regression-based approach is proposed for multi-class control is described and shown to provide an effective means of providing FMG-based proportional control. ItemMultiday Evaluation of Techniques for EMG-Based Classification of Hand Motions(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019-07) Waris, Asim; Niazi, Imran K.; Jamil, Mohsin; Englehart, Kevin; Jensen, Winnie; Kamavuako, Ernest NlanduCurrently, most of the adopted myoelectric schemes for upper limb prostheses do not provide users with intuitive control. Higher accuracies have been reported using different classification algorithms but investigation on the reliability over time for these methods is very limited. In this study, we compared for the first time the longitudinal performance of selected state-of-the-art techniques for electromyography (EMG) based classification of hand motions. Experiments were conducted on ten able-bodied and six transradial amputees for seven continuous days. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and decision trees (TREE) were compared. Comparative analysis showed that the ANN attained highest classification accuracy followed by LDA. Three-way repeated ANOVA test showed a significant difference (P <; 0.001) between EMG types (surface, intramuscular, and combined), days (1-7), classifiers, and their interactions. Performance on the last day was significantly better (P <; 0.05) than the first day for all classifiers and EMG types. Within-day, classification error (WCE) across all subject and days in ANN was: surface (9.12 ± 7.38%), intramuscular (11.86 ± 7.84%), and combined (6.11 ± 7.46%). The between-day analysis in a leave-one-day-out fashion showed that the ANN was the optimal classifier surface (21.88 ± 4.14%), intramuscular (29.33 ± 2.58%), and combined (14.37 ± 3.10%). Results indicate that within day performances of classifiers may be similar but over time, it may lead to a substantially different outcome. Furthermore, training ANN on multiple days might allow capturing time-dependent variability in the EMG signals and thus minimizing the necessity for daily system recalibration. ItemOn the robustness of real-time myoelectric control investigations: a multiday Fitts’ law approach(IOP Publishing, 2019) Waris, Asim; Mendez, Irene; Englehart, Kevin; Jensen, Winnie; Kamavuako, Ernest NlanduObjective. Real-time myoelectric experimental protocol is considered as a means to quantify usability of myoelectric control schemes. While usability should be considered over time to assure clinical robustness, all real-time studies reported thus far are limited to a single session or day and thus the influence of time on real-time performance is still unexplored. In this study, the aim was to develop a novel experimental protocol to quantify the effect of time on real-time performance measures over multiple days using a Fitts' law approach. Approach. Four metrics: throughput, completion rate, path efficiency and overshoot, were assessed using three train-test strategies: (i) an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was trained on data collected from the previous day and tested on present day (BDT) (ii) trained and tested on the same day (WDT) and (iii) trained on all previous days including present day and tested on present day (CDT) in a week-long experimental protocol. Main results. It was found that on average, the completion rate (98.37% ± 1.47%) of CDT was significantly better (P < 0.01) than that of BDT (86.25% ± 3.46%) and WDT (94.22% ± 2.74%). The throughput (0.40 ± 0.03 bits s−1) of CDT was significantly better (P = 0.001) than that of BDT (0.38 ± 0.03 bits s−1). Offline analysis showed a different trend due to the difference in the training strategies. Significance. Results suggest that increasing the size of the training set over time can be beneficial to assure robust performance of the system over time. ItemEffects of Confidence-Based Rejection on Usability and Error in Pattern Recognition-Based Myoelectric Control(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019) Robertson, Jason W.; Englehart, Kevin B.; Scheme, Erik J.Rejection of movements based on the confidence in the classification decision has previously been demonstrated to improve the usability of pattern recognition based myoelectric control. To this point, however, the optimal rejection threshold has been determined heuristically, and it is not known how different thresholds affect the tradeoff between error mitigation and false rejections in real-time closed-loop control. To answer this question, 24 able-bodied subjects completed a real-time Fitts' law-style virtual cursor control task using a support vector machine classifier. It was found that rejection improved information throughput at all thresholds, with the best performance coming at thresholds between 0.60 and 0.75. Two fundamental types of error were defined and identified: operator error (identifiable, repeatable behaviors, directly attributable to the user), and systemic error (other errors attributable to misclassification or noise). The incidence of both operator and systemic errors were found to decrease as rejection threshold increased. Moreover, while the incidence of all error types correlated strongly with path efficiency, only systemic errors correlated strongly with throughput and trial completion rate. Interestingly, more experienced users were found to commit as many errors as novice users, despite performing better in the Fitts' task, suggesting that there is more to usability than error prevention alone. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate the usability gains possible with rejection across a range of thresholds for both novice and experienced users alike. ItemFMG Versus EMG: A Comparison of Usability for Real-Time Pattern Recognition Based Control(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019) Belyea, Alex; Englehart, Kevin; Scheme, ErikObjective: Force myography (FMG), which measures the surface pressure profile exerted by contracting muscles, has been proposed as an alternative to electromyography (EMG) for human-machine interfaces. Although FMG pattern recognition-based control systems have yielded higher offline classification accuracy, comparatively few works have examined the usability of FMG for real-time control. In this work, we conduct a comprehensive comparison of EMG- and FMG-based schemes using both classification and regression controllers. Methods: A total of 20 participants performed a two-degree-of-freedom Fitts' Law-style virtual target acquisition task using both FMG- and EMG-based classification and regression control schemes. Performance was evaluated based on the standard Fitts' law testing metrics throughput, path efficiency, average speed, number of timeouts, overshoot, stopping distance, and simultaneity. Results: The FMG-based classification system significantly outperformed the EMG-based classification system in both throughput (0.902 ± 0.270) versus (0.751 ± 0.309), (ρ <; 0.001) and path efficiency (87.2 ± 8.7) versus (83.2 ± 7.8), (ρ <; 0.001). Similarly, FMG-based regression significantly outperformed EMG-based regression in throughput (0.871 ± 0.2) versus (0.69 ± 0.3), (ρ <; 0.001) and path efficiency (64.8 ± 5.3) versus (58.8 ± 7.1), (ρ <; 0.001). Conclusions: The FMG-based schemes outperformed the EMG-based schemes regardless of which controller was used. This provides further evidence for FMG as a viable alternative to EMG for human-machine interfaces. Significance: This work describes a comprehensive evaluation of the online usability of FMG- and EMG-based control using both sequential classification and simultaneous regression control. ItemRegression convolutional neural network for improved simultaneous EMG control(IOP Publishing, 2019) Ameri, Ali; Ali Akhaee, Mohammad; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, KevinObjective. Deep learning models can learn representations of data that extract useful information in order to perform prediction without feature engineering. In this paper, an electromyography (EMG) control scheme with a regression convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed as a substitute of conventional regression models that use purposefully designed features. Approach. The usability of the regression CNN model is validated for the first time, using an online Fitts' law style test with both individual and simultaneous wrist motions. Results were compared to that of a support vector regression-based scheme with a group of widely used extracted features. Main results. In spite of the proven efficiency of these well-known features, the CNN-based system outperformed the support vector machine (SVM) based scheme in throughput, due to higher regression accuracies especially with high EMG amplitudes. Significance. These results indicate that the CNN model can extract underlying motor control information from EMG signals during single and multiple degree-of-freedom (DoF) tasks. The advantage of regression CNN over classification CNN (studied previously) is that it allows independent and simultaneous control of motions. ItemA Deep Transfer Learning Approach to Reducing the Effect of Electrode Shift in EMG Pattern Recognition-Based Control(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020) Ameri, Ali; Akhaee, Mohammad Ali; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, KevinAn important barrier to commercialization of pattern recognition myoelectric control of prostheses is the lack of robustness to confounding factors such as electrode shift, skin impedance variations, and learning effects. To overcome this challenge, a novel supervised adaptation approach based on transfer learning (TL) with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is proposed which requires only a short training session (a few seconds for each class) to recalibrate the system. TL is proposed as a solution to the problem of insufficient calibration data due to short training times for both classification and regression-based control schemes. This approach was validated for electrode shift of roughly 2.5cm with 13 able-bodied subjects to estimate individual and combined wrist motions. With this method, the original CNN (trained before the shift) was fine-tuned with the calibration data from after shifting. The results show that the proposed technique outperforms training a CNN from scratch (random initialization of weights) or a support vector machine (SVM) using the minimal calibration data. Moreover, it demonstrates superior performance than previous LDA and QDA-based adaptation approaches. As the outcomes confirm, the proposed CNN TL method provides a practical solution for adaptation to external factors, improving the robustness of electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition systems. ItemA Multiday Evaluation of Real-Time Intramuscular EMG Usability with ANN(MDPI, 2020) Waris, Asim; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zia; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jochumsen, Mads; Englehart, Kevin; Jensen, Winnie; Haavik, Heidi; Kamavuako, Ernest NlanduRecent developments in implantable technology, such as high-density recordings, wireless transmission of signals to a prosthetic hand, may pave the way for intramuscular electromyography (iEMG)-based myoelectric control in the future. This study aimed to investigate the real-time control performance of iEMG over time. A novel protocol was developed to quantify the robustness of the real-time performance parameters. Intramuscular wires were used to record EMG signals, which were kept inside the muscles for five consecutive days. Tests were performed on multiple days using Fitts’ law. Throughput, completion rate, path efficiency and overshoot were evaluated as performance metrics using three train/test strategies. Each train/test scheme was categorized on the basis of data quantity and the time difference between training and testing data. An artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was trained and tested on (i) data from the same day (WDT), (ii) data collected from the previous day and tested on present-day (BDT) and (iii) trained on all previous days including the present day and tested on present-day (CDT). It was found that the completion rate (91.6 ± 3.6%) of CDT was significantly better (p < 0.01) than BDT (74.02 ± 5.8%) and WDT (88.16 ± 3.6%). For BDT, on average, the first session of each day was significantly better (p < 0.01) than the second and third sessions for completion rate (77.9 ± 14.0%) and path efficiency (88.9 ± 16.9%). Subjects demonstrated the ability to achieve targets successfully with wire electrodes. Results also suggest that time variations in the iEMG signal can be catered by concatenating the data over several days. This scheme can be helpful in attaining stable and robust performance. ItemAn analytical method reduces noise bias in motor adaptation analysis(Nature Research, 2021) Blustein, Daniel H.; Shehata, Ahmed W.; Kuylenstierna, Erin S.; Englehart, Kevin B.; Sensinger, Jonathon W.When a person makes a movement, a motor error is typically observed that then drives motor planning corrections on subsequent movements. This error correction, quantified as a trial-by-trial adaptation rate, provides insight into how the nervous system is operating, particularly regarding how much confidence a person places in different sources of information such as sensory feedback or motor command reproducibility. Traditional analysis has required carefully controlled laboratory conditions such as the application of perturbations or error clamping, limiting the usefulness of motor analysis in clinical and everyday environments. Here we focus on error adaptation during unperturbed and naturalistic movements. With increasing motor noise, we show that the conventional estimation of trial-by-trial adaptation increases, a counterintuitive finding that is the consequence of systematic bias in the estimate due to noise masking the learner’s intention. We present an analytic solution relying on stochastic signal processing to reduce this effect of noise, producing an estimate of motor adaptation with reduced bias. The result is an improved estimate of trial-by-trial adaptation in a human learner compared to conventional methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method in analyzing simulated and empirical movement data under different noise conditions. ItemA Multi-Variate Approach to Predicting Myoelectric Control Usability(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021) Nawfel, Jena L.; Englehart, Kevin B.; Scheme, Erik J.Pattern recognition techniques leveraging the use of electromyography signals have become a popular approach to provide intuitive control of myoelectric devices. Performance of these control interfaces is commonly quantified using offline classification accuracy, despite studies having shown that this metric is a poor indicator of usability. Researchers have identified alternative offline metrics that better correlate with online performance; however, the relationship has yet to be fully defined in the literature. This has necessitated the continued trial-and-error-style online testing of algorithms developed using offline approaches. To bridge this information divide, we conducted an exploratory study where thirty-two different metrics from the offline training data were extracted. A correlation analysis and an ordinary least squares regression were implemented to investigate the relationship between the offline metrics and six aspects online use. The results indicate that the current offline standard, classification accuracy, is a poor indicator of usability and that other metrics may hold predictive power. The metrics identified in this work also may constitute more representative evaluation criteria when designing and reporting new control schemes. Furthermore, linear combinations of offline training metrics generate substantially more accurate predictions than using individual metrics. We found that the offline metric feature efficiency generated the best predictions for the usability metric throughput. A combination of two offline metrics (mean semi-principal axes and mean absolute value) significantly outperformed feature efficiency alone, with a 166% increase in the predicted R 2 value (i.e., VEcv). These findings suggest that combinations of metrics could provide a more robust framework for predicting usability.